Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga


Taxonomic note
Clanga clanga (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aquila.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable A2cde
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2011 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 57,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3900-10000 medium suspected 2021
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.22 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 960-1,300 breeding pairs, equating to 1,900-2,500 individuals (BirdLife International In prep.). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,900-10,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. There is very little data available on population sizes further east in the species's range. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). Estimates based on known breeding areas in the Volga-Ural region and southwest Siberia and the amount of suitable habitat suggest that the Russian population may be as large as 4,000-4,500 breeding pairs (Karyakin 2008, Karyakin et al. 2012), however, given the vast size of the species's Russian range, further research is necessary to validate this. It is provisionally placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is suspected to have undergone at least a moderately rapid decline over the last three generations as a result of habitat loss and degradation throughout its breeding and wintering ranges, together with the effects of disturbance, persecution and competition with other predators. In Europe, the population size is suspected to have decreased by over 30% in the past 28 years (three generations [Bird et al. 2020]) (BirdLife International In prep.). There is very little data available on population trends further east in the species's range. Information collected and published in the Proceedings of the Vth International Conference on Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia reported declines since the 20th century in various areas of Russia, including Darvinskyi reserve in northwest Russia  (Babushkin & Kuznecov 2008), southeast Siberia (Elaev 2008) and the Northern Lower-Volga Region (Zavialov & Tabachishin 2008). However, surveys in the south of Western Siberia and the Volga-Ural region suggest that the species is still fairly common in these areas (Karyakin 2008; Karyakin 2012). The global population is provisionally suspected to be declining at a rate of 25-35% based on the decline in the European population, however further research is necessary to understand population dynamics in the Asian part of the species's range. 

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Laos N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes Yes
Mali V Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro V Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa V Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania V Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda U Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Carska bara
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Vecumi
Latvia Lake Lielauce
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Turkey Göksu Delta
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Evros delta
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Värtsilä valley
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Vodlozero
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Nemanski forest
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Redrovski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers
Russia (European) Terekhovski oak-forest
Russia (European) Danilovski forest
Russia (European) Rubezhnoye forest
Russia (European) Bekovskoye forest
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Privolzhskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Sokino
Russia (European) Watershed of Bel'skaya and Nugush rivers
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Etangs Narbonnais
France La Dombes
France Montagne de la Clape
France Marais de Brière
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Middle course of River Brenta
Italy Scrivia stream
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Italy Maritime Alps
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Velipoja
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Georgia Meskheti
Georgia Kolkheti
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Turkey Meriç Delta
Israel Western Negev
Israel Hula valley
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Oman Khawr Rouri
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Yemen Aden
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Vietnam Tram Chim
Vietnam Fan Si Pan
Russia (European) Ufimskoye plateau
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Pavlovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Ai river
Russia (European) Uryuk
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Bakalinski forest
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir)
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Russia (European) Andreyaul'ski reserve
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Bangladesh Hail Haor
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidagang
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) She Dao Island
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi)
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Pangquangou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Funiu Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mount Huang Shan
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Wuyi Shan Nature Reserve (Fujian)
China (mainland) Wanmulin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Meihua Shan Nature Reserve
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Tanjung Tuan
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Myanmar Ninety-six Inns
Myanmar Yemyet Inn
Myanmar Indawlay Kan
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Nadi Kan
Myanmar Taung Kan at Sedawgyi
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Bagan Section
Myanmar Kaladan River
Myanmar Moyingyi
Thailand Doi Inthanon
Thailand Bung Boraphet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Thailand Khao Sam Roi Yot
Thailand Tha Yang
Thailand Lower Central Basin
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
Nepal Upper Mai Valley forests
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) South Baikal migratory corridor
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Singapore Kranji-Mandai
Singapore Ubin-Khatib
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Chhep
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
Cambodia Veal Srongae
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Northern Santuk
Laos Eastern Bolikhamxay Mountains
Laos Nakai Plateau
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve)
India Pulicat Lake
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Namdapha - Kamlang
India Bauwwa Beel
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Chakrashila Complex
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Kaziranga National Park
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Majuli
India Manas National Park
India Nameri National Park
India Pabho Reserve Forest
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests
India Son Beel
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Carambolim Wetlands
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Bhal area
India Flamingo City
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Velavadar National Park
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj
India Basai wetlands
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sultanpur National Park
India Palamau Tiger Reserve
India Hanle Plains (Hanle River marshes)
India Bannerghatta National Park
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs
India Nagarhole National Park
India Narasambudhi Lake
India Rangananthittu Bird Sanctuary
India Kattampally
India Kole Wetland
India Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Navegaon National Park
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve
India Taloda Reserve Forest
India Thane Creek
India Toranmal Reserve Forest
India Riat Khwan - Umiam Lake
India Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Madhav National Park
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Simlipal National Park
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Desert National Park
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary - Tsomgo - Tamze - Chola Complex
India Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary - Tendong Reserve Forest
India Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex
India Grass Hills
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary
India Vedanthangal and Karikili Bird Sanctuary
India Dudhwa National Park
India Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Kurra Jheel
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary
India Narora
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah)
India Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Saman Bird Sanctuary
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
India Sheikha Jheel
India Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
India Asan Barrage
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Rajaji National Park
India Gorumara National Park
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex
India Singhalila National Park
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
Nepal Nawalparasi forests
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
Malaysia Bintang Range
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota)
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Chavanščyna
Belarus Čyrvonaje
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Pcič floodplain
Belarus Vieluta
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Stary Žadzien
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Belarus Prostyr
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Samarskaya Luka
Russia (Central Asian) Volchihinskay
Russia (Central Asian) Redut' pine forest
Russia (European) Elanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Mamontovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Tobol pine forests near Proryvnoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Muromcevskoje a bog
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of lake Achikul
Russia (Central Asian) Vavilon Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kulundinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Gornaya Kolyvan'
Russia (Central Asian) Suzunsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Karakansky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Berd' river
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Chumyshskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Biyskiye pine forests
Russia (Central Asian) Kasmalinskaya and Barnaulskaya forest bands
Russia (Central Asian) Vaganovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Russia (European) Irnykshinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Okhlebininskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Mishkinski forest
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Kaburlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Latvia Orlovas bog
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya
France Domaine d'Orx
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Camargue
France Crau
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (European) Forests and bogs in the lower reaches of Bol'shaya Kaksha river
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Jordan Dana
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Duqm
Oman Wadi Darbat
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Zambia North Luangwa National Park
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Vietnam Tien Hai
Vietnam Thai Thuy
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Russia (European) Chapaevskie Limans
Russia (European) Staromainskiy forest and bay
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Rasskazan' lake and flood-plain of Khoper river
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Slovenia Črete
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Lower Posavina
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (European) Zalazniki, Beli, Urino and Leskovo area
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Russia (European) Vetluga floodplain in the Nizhni Novgorod region
Russia (European) Watershead of Malaya Sviyaga river
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Klyaz'ma river from mouth of Teza river up to Mstera
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Iraq Auda Marsh
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Belarus Volchva
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Jabal Moussa Mountain
Poland Wizna Swamps
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tongbiguan
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Hong Kong (China) Inland New Territories
Russia (Central Asian) Suzunsky pine forest
China (mainland) Guangtouling
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Ethiopia Nechisar National Park and surroundings
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Thailand Doi Suthep-Pui
Thailand Sanambin
Myanmar Pyindaye
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Schinias marsh
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Georgia Meskheti Ridge
Georgia Batumi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Maku and Iran west border
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
United Arab Emirates Al Wathba
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bojagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mountain Sahand and Sabalan
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
United Arab Emirates Digdaga - Hamraniyah
United Arab Emirates Siniyah Island
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
India Botha Beel
India Sareswar Beel
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Garabil
Serbia Labudovo okno
India Dighal wetland
India Maguri and Motapung Beels
India Chirang Reserve Forest
India Ripu Reserve Forest
India Surajpur wetland
India Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary and Reserve Forest
India Jor Beer
India Ujjani Reservoir
India Dhanauri wetland
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Namdapha National Park
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
India Naina Devi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve
India Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Heerakund Reservoir and Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary
India Navelim wetland
India Loktak Lake
India Keshopur Miani (or Chhamb) Community Reserve
India Amboli-Tilari Reserve Forest
India Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary
India Hesaraghatta Lake
India Hoskote Kere
Serbia Srednje Potamišje

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subarctic major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Clanga pomarina Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Martes martes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Clanga clanga. Downloaded from on 28/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/05/2022.