LC
Greater Scaup Aythya marila



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 46,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 92,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4900000-5199999 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 4,920,000-5,130,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The breeding population in Europe is estimated at 134,000-178,000 pairs, which equates to 269,000-355,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2016). This species underwent a significant population increase between 1974 and 2011 in North America (Zimpfer 2011, T. McCoy in litt. 2012). In Europe the breeding population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 24.6 years (three grenerations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt U Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia U Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) U Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Hiiumaa islets
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Pärnu bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Miklavatn-Skógar
Iceland Ósar
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Luknajno lake
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Evros delta
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Makkumer-and Kooiwaard
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Kevo
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Domaine d'Orx
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Arjuzanx
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Flensborg Fjord and Nybøl Nor
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Georgia Kolkheti
Norway Lista wetland system
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Brodtener Ufer
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Eastern coast of Oldenburg: Grossenbroder Kai-Pelzerhaken
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany East- and south-east coast of Fehmarn
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Norway Varangerfjord
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Estonia Hullo and Sviby bays
Estonia Paldiski bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Latvia Irbe strait
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Japan Isahaya bay
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Banzu and Futtsu tidal flat
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Lake Nakaumi
Japan Lake Shinjiko
Japan Lake Hamanako, Enshunada
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
Japan Yahagigawa estuary
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Azas Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Val de Saône
France Plaine du Forez
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Canada Skidegate Inlet
Canada Little George Island
Canada Codroy Valley Estuary
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Canada Wolfe Island
Canada Lower Detroit River
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Old Crow Flats
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Iraq Hawizeh
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Germany Schlei
Germany Sagasbank and eastern coast of Oldenburg
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Untermain
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Reisa
Denmark Bøjden Nor
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Estonia Lahemaa
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Coastal area of Ystad – Hörte

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aythya marila. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2020.