LC
Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,590,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 123,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-225000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000-340,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). This roughly equates to 100,000-225,000 mature individuals. National population sizes have been estimated at < 10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 600-1,000 pairs, which equates to 1,200-2,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes. However, the species appears to be in decline (Wetlands International 2016). In Europe, the current population trend has not been estimated, but the population size is thought to be decreasing by at least 10% in three generations (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belgium V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi V Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru U Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Palas Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Karapınar Plain
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Bolluk Lake
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Erçek Lake
Turkey Tersakan Lake
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast
Tanzania Mnazi Bay
Tanzania Tanga North - Kibo saltpans
Tanzania Tanga South
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-East Coast
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Syria Jabal Sis
Vietnam Nghia Hung
Vietnam Binh Dai
Vietnam Ba Tri
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Brunei Bay (Malaysia)
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Mongolia Airag Lake
Brunei Brunei Bay
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Afghanistan Dashte Nawar
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Jordan Burqu'
Jordan Qa' Khanna
Jordan Azraq
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake
Uzbekistan The desert around Kurkuduk village
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Uzbekistan Vardanzi
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Yemen Aden
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Delili - Garajabatyr
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Turkmenistan Tekejik - Biynekyr
Turkey Obruk Plateau
Turkey Hodulbaba Mountain
Cyprus Kato Pafos Lighthouse Area
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Agia Thekla - Liopetri River
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Australia Roebuck Bay
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
United Arab Emirates Ba Al Ghaylam
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
China (mainland) Xiamen coast

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Spartina alterniflora Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Charadrius leschenaultii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021.