Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Vulnerable A2d+3d+4d
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,280,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.4 - - -

Population justification: The population size is unknown, but the species is described as scarce. Subspecies C. s. zosterops had previously been described as common where habitat remains (Wells 2016), but currently the evidence suggests that birds are being trapped throughout the range and have either disappeared or become very rare at many sites throughout Indonesia and now Peninsular Malaysia as well (Eaton et al. 2015, J. Eaton in litt. 2016, Bas van Balen in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: Evidence suggests that it is being trapped throughout the range and has either disappeared or become very rare at many sites throughout Indonesia and  Peninsular Malaysia (Eaton et al. 2015, J. Eaton in litt. 2016, Bas van Balen in litt. 2016), hence a continuing decline is inferred. The population is suspected to be declining at a rapid to very rapid rate due to tremendous levels of trapping to supply the cage bird trade. This species was present at very low numbers in the markets at the turn of the century, with none recorded in Medan in 1997 and 1998 then 110 observed in the following three years (Shepherd 2006). Numbers slowly increased with an annual number traded through the markets in Medan estimated at 842 birds during 2012-2013 (Harris et al. 2015). Since then however, the species has suddenly come into fashion (Chng et al. 2017, Eaton et al. 2015), and right now vast numbers are being traded. J. Eaton in litt. (2016) states that 5,000 individuals per month are currently being imported from Sarawak into Kalimantan. Chng et al. (2017) also report a dealer trading 6,000 individuals from Malaysian Borneo to Kalimantan. In Kalimantan it was stated by shop owners to be the species in highest demand, hardest to find (supply) and to be increasing most rapidly in price (A. Miller in litt. 2016), clearly indicating that a species that should be abundant may be close to extinction in West Kalimantan (Chng et al. 2017). In west Java, the cost of an individual in 2014 was US$ 44 (Chng et al. 2015); in September 2016 one was priced at US$ 99 (Chng et al. 2017). Such a price rise while supply (numbers counted in markets) is still high is a strong indication of an over-exploited species suffering declines (Harris et al. 2015). Expert opinion from the IUCN SSC Asian Songbird Trade Specialist Group (ASTSG in litt. 2018) considers that the current suspected rate of decline in the species exceeds 50% and, in the absence of any expectation of a reduction in market demand or restriction on trapping activity, is expected to continue at this very rapid rate. Symes et al. (2018) used expert opinion on desirability and estimates of the degree of accessibility of the range to trapping to estimate a future population decline of 55% due to trapping over the next three generations, and also estimated rates of deforestation within the range to be 14% over the past three generations, a rate that was projected to continue into the future.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Ulu Muda
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Kledang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Selangor Heritage Park
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia South-east Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia Crocker Range
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Tawau Hills Park
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Klias peninsula
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Gunung Penrissen
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Danum-Linau
Malaysia Similajau National Park
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands
Thailand Bala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Bu Do - Sungai Padi
Thailand Chaloem Pra Kiet (Pa Phru to Daeng)
Thailand Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park
Thailand Kaeng Krachan
Thailand Khao Banthad
Thailand Khao Luang
Thailand Khao Nor Chuchi
Thailand Thaleban

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist marginal resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chloropsis sonnerati. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2021.