VU
Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2d+3d+4d

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2d+3d+4d
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,280,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: The population size is unknown, but the species is described as scarce. Race zosterops had previously been described as common where habitat remains (Wells 2016), but currently the evidence suggests that birds are being trapped throughout the range and have either disappeared or become very rare at many sites throughout Indonesia and now Peninsular Malaysia as well (Eaton et al. 2015, J. Eaton in litt. 2016, Bas van Balen in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining at a rapid to very rapid rate due to tremendous levels of trapping to supply the cage bird trade. This species was present at very low numbers in the markets at the turn of the century, with none recorded in Medan in 1997 and 1998 then 110 observed in the following three years (Shepherd 2006). Numbers slowly increased with an annual number traded through the markets in Medan estimated at 842 birds during 2012-2013 (Harris et al. 2015). Since then however, the species has suddenly come into fashion (Eaton et al. 2015), and right now mind-boggling numbers are being traded. J. Eaton in litt. (2016) states that 5000 individuals per month are currently being imported from Sarawak into Kalimantan. In Kalimantan it was stated by shop owners to be the species in highest demand, hardest to find (supply) and to be increasing most rapidly in price (A. Miller in litt. 2016). The cost of an individual in 2014 was US$ 44 (Chng et al. 2015); in September 2016 one was priced at US$ 99 (S. Chng in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Crocker Range
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Danum-Linau
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Gunung Penrissen
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Hulu Gombak-Sungai Lalang forest
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Kledang Range
Malaysia Klias peninsula
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Malaysia Similajau National Park
Malaysia South-East Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Tawau Hills Park
Malaysia Ulu Muda

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist marginal resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Chloropsis sonnerati. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/12/2017.