Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus


Amat, J. A.; Rendón, M. A.; Rendón-Martos, M.; Garrido, A.; Ramírez, J. M. 2005. Ranging behaviour of greater flamingos during the breeding and post-breeding periods: linking connectivity to biological processes. Biological Conservation 125: 183-192.

Baker, N. E.; Baker, E. M.; Van den Bossche, W.; Biebach, H. 2006. Movements of three Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber roseus fitted with satellite transmitters in Tanzania. Waterbirds around the world. In: Boere, G. C.; Galbraith, C. A.; Stroud, D. A. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 239-244. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Balachandran, S. 2007. Current status of Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus at major coastal wetlands along the east coast of India with special emphasis on population decline. Flamingo.

Balkiz, Ö. 2006. Dynamique de la metapopulation de flamants roses en Méditerranée: implications pour la conservation. Sciences et techniques du Languedoc, Université Montpellier II.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brown, L.H.; Root, A. 1971. The breeding behaviour of the Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor. Ibis 113: 147-172.

Brown, L.H.; Urban, E.K.; Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

Curcó, A., Vidal, F. and Piccardo, J. 2009. Conservation and management of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus at the Ebre delta. Flamingo, Special Publ 1: 37-43.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. and Garcia, E.F.J. 2014. Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive., Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Diawara, Y.; Arnaud, A.; Araujo, A.; Béchet, A. 2007. Nouvelles données sur la reproduction et l’hivernage des flamants roses Phoenicopterus roseus en Mauritanie et confirmation d’échanges avec les populations méditerranéennes. Ostrich 78: 469-474.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Hockey, P.A.R.; Dean, W.R.J.; Ryan, P.G. 2005. Roberts Birds of Southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Martos, M. R.; Johnson, A. R. 1996. Management of Nesting Sites for Greater Flamingos. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 167-183.

Mateo, R., Belliure, J., Dolz, J.C., Aguilar-Serrano, J.M. and Guitart, R. 1998. High prevalences of lead poisoning in wintering waterfowl in Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35: 342-347.

McCulloch, G.; Aebischer, A.; Irvine, K. 2003. Satellite tracking of flamingos in southern Africa: the importance of small wetlands for management and conservation. Oryx 37: 480-483.

McCulloch, G.; Irvine, K. 2004. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana, 1998-2001. Ostrich 75: 236-242.

Miltiadou, M. 2005. Wintering populations, breeding attempts and lead poisoning of the Great Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus on the salt lakes of Cyprus. Flamingo 13: 31-35.

Nasirwa, O. 2000. Conservation status of flamingos in Kenya. Waterbirds 23: 47-51.

Ogilvie, M.; Ogilvie, C. 1986. Flamingos. Alan Sutton, Gloucester.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tucker, G.M.; Heath, M.F. 1994. Birds in Europe: Their Conservation Status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

van Heerden, J. 1974. Botulism in the Orange Free State goldfields. Ostrich 45(3): 182-184.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Yosef, R. 2000. Individual distances among Greater Flamingos as indicators of tourism pressure. Waterbirds 23: 26-31.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Flamingo Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Phoenicopterus roseus. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023.