LC
Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Thalasseus bergii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 142,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2009
Population trend stable - suspected -
Generation length 10.5 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000-1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Australia extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes yes
Bangladesh extant native
British Indian Ocean Territory extant native
Brunei extant native
Cambodia extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Cook Islands extant native yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Fiji extant native yes
French Polynesia extant native
Guam (to USA) extant native yes
India extant native
Indonesia extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native
Japan extant native
Jordan extant vagrant
Kenya extant native
Kiribati extant native
Kuwait extant native yes
Madagascar extant native yes
Malaysia extant native yes
Maldives extant native yes
Marshall Islands extant native yes
Mauritius extant native
Mayotte (to France) extant native
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Mozambique extant native
Myanmar extant native
Namibia extant native yes
Nauru extant vagrant
New Caledonia (to France) extant native yes
New Zealand extant vagrant
North Korea extant vagrant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palau extant native yes
Papua New Guinea extant native yes
Philippines extant native yes
Qatar extant native yes yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Seychelles extant native yes
Singapore extant native
Solomon Islands extant native yes
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant native
Sudan extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Thailand extant native
Timor-Leste extant native yes
Tonga extant native yes
Tuvalu extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
USA extant vagrant
Vanuatu extant native yes
Vietnam extant native
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) extant native
Yemen extant native yes yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Madagascar Cape Anorontany Archipelago NPA
Madagascar Nosy Manitse Future SAPM Marine and surrounding wetlands
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands
Namibia Sperrgebiet
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Sudan Suakin archipelago
Tanzania Latham Island
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Robben Island
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Al Batinah coast
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Taiwan, China Southern Sea Islets
Taiwan, China Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge
Taiwan, China Northeastern Sea Islets
Malaysia Pulau Layang-Layang
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park
Japan Senkaku islands
Japan Nishinoshima island
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Australia Seagull Island (Tiwi Islands)
Australia Pearce, Urquhart and Hervey Islands (Sir Edward Pellew Group)
Australia Bountiful Islands
Australia Michaelmas Cay
Australia Lowendal Islands
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yushan Islands
China (mainland) Taizhou Islands
China (mainland) Beiji Islands
Japan Nishinoshima island - Marine
Yemen Aden

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - non-trivial recent
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Thalasseus bergii. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/greater-crested-tern-thalasseus-bergii on 27/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 27/02/2024.