LC
Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Thalasseus bergii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 142,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000-1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nauru V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
North Korea V Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tuvalu N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Vanuatu N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Tetiaroa
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Madagascar Cape Anorontany Archipelago NPA
Madagascar Nosy Manitse Future SAPM Marine and surrounding wetlands
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands
Namibia Sperrgebiet
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Sudan Suakin archipelago
Palau Helen Island, Hatohobei
Tanzania Latham Island
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Robben Island
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Al Batinah coast
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Yemen Aden
Taiwan, China Southern Sea Islets
Taiwan, China Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge
Taiwan, China Northeastern Sea Islets
Malaysia Talang-Satang National Park
Malaysia Pulau Layang-Layang
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park
Japan Senkaku islands
Japan Nishinoshima island
Singapore Kranji-Mandai
Singapore Ubin-Khatib
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kharku Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sheedvar island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Qarnain Island
Yemen Qishn beach
Australia Seagull Island (Tiwi Islands)
Australia Pearce, Urquhart and Hervey Islands (Sir Edward Pellew Group)
Australia Bountiful Islands
Australia Michaelmas Cay
French Polynesia Manuae, Motu One et Maupihaa
Micronesia, Federated States of Wolouna, Ahnd Atoll
Australia Lowendal Islands
Kuwait Kubbar island
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Fiji Mabualau & Saqata Rocks
Fiji Namenalala
French Polynesia Tahanea
French Polynesia Vallée de Avera
French Polynesia Makatea
French Polynesia Morane
French Polynesia Niau
French Polynesia Moruroa
French Polynesia Tikehau
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Bora Bora
French Polynesia Huahine
French Polynesia Tahaea (OR IS THIS TAHANEA?)
French Polynesia Faaite
French Polynesia Fakarava Atolls
French Polynesia Haraiki
French Polynesia Manuhangi
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yushan Islands
China (mainland) Taizhou Islands
China (mainland) Beiji Islands
Fiji Vatu-i-Ra
French Polynesia Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa
South Africa Bird Island / Dassen Island / Heuningnes river and estuary system / Lower Berg river wetlands - Marine
Madagascar Cape Anorontany archipelago - Marine
Australia Seagull Island (Tiwis) - Marine
Seychelles Aldabra atoll / Cosmoledo atoll - Marine
Tanzania Latham Island - Marine
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain - Marine
Malaysia Pulau Layang-Layang - Marine
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park - Marine
Djibouti Les Sept Frères - Marine
Sudan Suakin archipelago - Marine
Taiwan, China Cat Islet Seabird Refuge, Penghu County Refuge / Northern Sea Islets / Northeastern Sea Islets / Southern Sea Islets - Marine
China (mainland) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge - Marine
Japan Nishinoshima island - Marine
Japan Senkaku islands - Marine
Australia Pearce, Urquhart & Hervey islands (Sir Edward Pellow Group) - Marine
Australia Bountiful Islands / Manowar & Rocky Islands - Marine
Australia Michaelmas Cay / Sudbury Reef (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Namibia Sperrgebiet - Marine
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve - Marine
India Burnt Island (Bandra) Vengurla Rocks - marine
India Beliapani (Cherbaniani) Island - marine
India Pitti Island - marine
India Burnt Island (Bandra) Vengurla Rocks
India Beliyapani Island
India Suheli Island
Micronesia, Federated States of East Fayu
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
Marshall Islands Taka Atoll
Papua New Guinea Southern New Ireland Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du Nord-Ouest
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots de Poindimié
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du lagon sud
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Solomon Islands Kolombangara Upland Forest
Solomon Islands North-west Vella Lavella
Solomon Islands Gizo
Solomon Islands East Rennell
Australia Bramble Cay
Madagascar Three Bays Complex
Madagascar Coastal area between Antalaha-Mahavelona
Madagascar Coastal area between Lokaro and Lavanono
Philippines Apo Reef Marine Natural Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Thalasseus bergii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2021.