EN
Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(ii) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(i,ii);D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(ii)
2013 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d; C2a(ii)
2007 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,810,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 800-1200 good estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Population justification: The total population is estimated to number 800-1,200 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,200-1,800 individuals in total. This is based on estimates of 650-800 birds in Assam, India, plus 150-200 birds in Cambodia, as well as at least 156 birds in Bihar state, India, which may have dispersed from the Assam population.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing very rapidly, in line with levels of direct exploitation and habitat destruction, particularly lowland deforestation and the felling of nest-trees, and drainage, conversion, pollution and over-exploitation of wetlands. Given the species's longevity, population trends are measured over a three-generation period of 45 years and hence the impacts have been severe.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Laos N Possibly Extinct
Myanmar N Possibly Extinct
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extinct
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries)
Bangladesh Teknaf Game Reserve
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla
Cambodia Chhep
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru
Cambodia Dei Roneat
Cambodia Lomphat
Cambodia Northern Santuk
Cambodia Prek Toal
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Veal Srongae
India Amchang Hills
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Chakrashila Complex
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Deobali Jalah, Sialmari, Haibargaon, Khutikatia (Nagaon)
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Kaziranga National Park
India Kuarbari Dalani
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Majuli
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Orang National Park
India Pabho Reserve Forest
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests
India Sibsagar Tanks
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex
Myanmar Central Tanintharyi Coast
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 550 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Leptoptilos dubius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.