LC
Great Xenops Megaxenops parnaguae



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is probably fairly common in parts of its range. The species is fairly common in Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí (Olmos 1993), and Chapada do Araripe National Forest, Ceará, and common at Palmas de Monte Alto, Bahia (J. M. C. da Silva in litt. 1993, 1995). It was common at Coribe, Bahia, in 1987, but habitat loss probably extirpated it from this site by 1993 (da Silva and Oren 1997).

Trend justification
Despite the threats from habitat loss and degradation the overall population and distribution seem quite large and recent records have hugely extended its known range in Bahia and into Minas Gerais and Goiás (J. M. C. da Silva in litt. 1993, 1995, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1995, J. Wall in litt. 1995, M. Marini per T. A. de Melo Júnior in litt. 1999), and the species is tentatively suspected to be stable.

Distribution and population

This species is a caatinga endemic, which occurs in the interior of north-east Brazil in Ceará, Piauí, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Distrito Federal and Goiás (Collar et al. 1992, Olmos 1993, J. M. C. da Silva in litt. 1993, 1995, Whitney and Pacheco 1994, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1995, J. Wall in litt. 1995, M. Marini per T. A. de Melo Júnior in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999).

Ecology

The species may primarily inhabit fairly dense caatinga woodland, often on poor, very sandy soils (Whitney and Pacheco 1994), but is known to tolerate degraded and burnt caatingas, where it can be locally common. It has been found within mixed species flocks (L. Silveira in litt. 2003, F. Olmos in litt. 2003), and has been observed foraging in burnt areas with low bushes in Serra da Capivara (Olmos 1993), and grazed and disturbed caatinga near Lago Grande in Pernambuco (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999).

Threats

Although the species has a large range, populations are localised, and there has been rapid habitat loss in parts of its range, especially in the Jaíba region of Minas Gerais (M. Marini per T. A. de Melo Júnior in litt. 1999), owing to conversion to irrigated and dry field agriculture, logging for charcoal production and intensive grazing (da Silva and Oren 1997). International financing agencies have accelerated the rate of forest destruction in the south of its range by underwriting irrigation projects (da Silva and Oren 1997).

Identification

16 cm. A distinctive rufous arboreal furnarid with a large upturned bill. Bright orange-rufous above. Buffier below, with a white throat. Heavy bill grey, with upturned lower mandible pale flesh; small dark grey area around the eye. Chestnut iris. Similar spp. The bill is diagnostic. Voice Song is a rattle, starting quietly with sparser notes and becoming louder and higher pitched before accelerating and fading at the end; also gives single loud sharp call, sometimes in a series. Hints Sometimes accompanies mixed understorey flocks; best located by call.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Fisher, S., Harding, M., Ekstrom, J., Hermes, C., O'Brien, A.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Megaxenops parnaguae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019.