Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

Crivelli, A. 1994. The importance of the former USSR for the conservation of pelican populations nesting in the Palaeartic. In: Crivelli, A.J.; Krivenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, V.G. (ed.), Pelicans in the former USSR, pp. 1-4. International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau, Slimbridge, UK.

Crivelli, A. J.; Catsadorakis, G.; Jerrentrup, H.; Hatzilacos, D.; Michev, T. 1991. Conservation and management of pelicans nesting in the Palearctic. In: Salathé, T. (ed.), Conservation of migratory birds, pp. 137-152. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (ed.). 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Du Toit, M.; Boere, G. C.; Cooper, J.; de Villiers, M. S.; Kemper, J.; Lenton, B.; Petersen, S. L.; Simmons, R. E.; Whittington, P. A.; Byers, O. P. 2002. Conservation assessment and management plan for southern African seabirds.

Elliott, A., Christie, D.A., Jutglar, F., Garcia, E.F.J. & Kirwan, G.M. 2018. Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona. Available at: (Accessed: 9 August 2018).

Flint, V.E., Boehme, R.L., Kostin, Y.V. and Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Hilgerloh, G., Michalik, A. & Raddatz, B. 2011. Autumn migration of soaring birds through the Gebel El Zeit Important Bird Area (IBA), Egypt, threatened by wind farm projects. Bird Conservation International 21(4): 365-375.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Jenkins AR, Reid T, du Plessis J, Colyn R, Benn G, Millikin R. 2018. Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa. PLoS One. 13(2).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Yohannes, Y.B., Ikenaka, Y., Nakayama, S.M.M. et al. 2017. Trace element contamination in tissues of four bird species from the Rift Valley Region, Ethiopia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 98: 172.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Pelican Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pelecanus onocrotalus. Downloaded from on 18/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/08/2022.