LC
Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 54,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 265,000-295,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 4,900-5,600 pairs, which equates to 9,700-11,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 260,000-300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable, or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Possibly Extinct Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka U Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Cyprus Akhna dam
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Strandzha
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Aktaş Lake
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Romania Bistreţ
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Botswana Okavango Delta
Botswana Lake Ngami
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans
Cameroon Waza National Park
Egypt Lake Nasser
Kenya Tana River Delta
Kenya Lake Elmenteita
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Séri
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Diawling National Park
Namibia Etosha National Park
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Tanzania Lake Eyasi
Tanzania Lake Rukwa
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kalungwishi
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Kytaj lake
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Hefer valley
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Zambia Mweru Wantipa National Park
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Sostinskiye lakes
Russia (European) Oling area
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bardha Dam
India Saman Bird Sanctuary
India Sauj Lake
Russia (Central Asian) System of lakes Kurlady-Selezjan-Atkul
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Chelopechene Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Iraq Central Marshes
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Wadi Jouhanam
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Turkey Burdur Lake
Lebanon Jabal Almat
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Lebanon Lower Damour River
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Lebanon Qammouaa
Turkey Bendimahi Delta
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve
South Africa Dassen Island
Lebanon Jabal Moussa Mountain
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Mostiştea
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Taşaul
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Lebanon Bentael forest area
Lebanon Tannourine Nature Reserve
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donnieh
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
South Africa Cape Whale Coast
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
South Africa Verlorenvlei Estuary
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt El Qa plain
Ethiopia Lake Zeway
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Ethiopia Lake Abe wetland system
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Mauritania Chott Boul
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1372 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pelecanus onocrotalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2022.