Great White Egret Ardea alba


Taxonomic note
Ardea alba (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Casmerodius as C. albus. Casmerodius albus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was previously retained as a cross-regional species contra Christidis and Boles (2008) who moved C. albus into the genus Ardea and split it into two cross-regional species A. alba and A. modesta (note gender agreement of specific name for alba).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 346,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 340,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 590000-2200000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.1 - - -

Population justification: Estimate includes totals for 'Ardea modesta'. The European population of A. alba is estimated at 20,700-34,900 pairs, which equates to 41,500-69,900 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable fluctuating or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (177% increase over 40 years, equating to a 29% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory V Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea V Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Cyprus Akhna dam
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Malko Sharkovo reservoir
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Fizes valley
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia River Drava
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Agyatan Lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece River Axios
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kolon Lake
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Nagy-berek of Fonyód
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Lake Fehér at Gátér
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Krutoyar
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Klivodyns'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy River Biferno
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Ticino river
Italy Tarquinia saltpans
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Stagnone di Marsala and Trapani saltpans
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy River Sesia heronries
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Austria Neusiedler See
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Botswana Okavango Delta
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Lake Maryut
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Gambia Bao Bolon Wetland Reserve
Gambia Dankunku wetlands
Gambia Islands of the Central River Division
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Kenya Tana River Delta
Madagascar Lake Sahaka - Analabe NPA and extension
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Timisobo - Képagou
Mali Séri
Mali Koumbé Niasso
Mali Kouakourou
Mauritania Diawling National Park
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Somalia Xawaadley reservoir
Tunisia Salines de Monastir
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve
Tanzania Wembere steppe
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Konka river mouth
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Hefer valley
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Oman Barr al Hikman
Vietnam Binh Dai
Russia (European) Large liman
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Oling area
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Thailand Sanambin
Philippines Candaba swamp
Philippines Manila Bay
Philippines Buguey wetlands
Philippines Ragay Gulf
Philippines Olango Island
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang
Cambodia Prek Toal
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Indonesia Tanjung Puting
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Prostyr
Russia (Central Asian) Mamontovskaya
Russia (European) Cherebayevskaya floodplain
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya
Jamaica Yallahs
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vaqueria
France Littoral Augeron
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Bonne Anse
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais de la Souche
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Val de Saône
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Pointe de Grave
France Forêt de la Reine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Bahamas Grog Pond
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Canada Dog Lake
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Luther Marsh
Canada Nottawasaga Island
Canada Chantry Island
Canada Île aux Hérons Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Marais de Saint-Étienne
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Cheghakor marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Bulgaria Plovdiv Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Red Bays
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Bahamas Southern Great Lake
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Nicaragua Solentiname Archipielago
Italy Taro river
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Argentina Reserva de Uso Múltiple Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Aruba (to Netherlands) Bubali Wetlands
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Fitches Creek Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Valley
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove
Antigua and Barbuda Hanson's Bay – Flashes
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Puerto Rico (to USA) El Yunque
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Virgin Islands (to USA) Perseverance Bay Lagoons
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Paraguay Parque Nacional Tinfunqué - Estero Patiño
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Vietnam Thai Thuy
St Lucia Point Sables
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Paraguay Río Negro - Pantanal
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Poland Miedwie site
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Turkmenistan Gorelde
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Italy Lake Candia
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Deelen
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Mexico Pantanos de Centla
Mexico Sur de Quintana Roo
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Turkey Güllük Bay
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Italy Codigoro heronry
Italy Bassa Parmense
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Iolanda di Savoia wetlands
Italy Bassa Modenese
Guyana Maparri - Kanuku Mountains
Guyana South Central Rupununi
Guyana North Rupununi - Karanambu Ranch
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Ressetinskiye floods
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Heerter See
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Renchniederung
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Drumlinlandschaft near Überlingen with Salemer Klosterweihern
Germany Baar
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Suhaia
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Jamaica Font Hill
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Oswin site
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Pilica River Valley
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Vistula Spit
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia River Mura
Belarus Braslav lakes
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Moldova Royal Forest
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Mexico Bahía de Ceuta - Cospita
USA Lake Martin
Mexico Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Belarus Čyrvonaja Slabada
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Netherlands De Wieden
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Belarus Laktyšy fish farm
Belarus Tremlia fish farm
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Brazil Mangue Seco
Philippines Pagbilao and Tayabas Bay
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
China (mainland) Haifeng wetlands
Sweden Lomma Bight
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Becej fishpond
Colombia El Encanto de Guanapalo
Taiwan, China Beimen
Ecuador Ciénaga de La Segua
Albania Narta Lagoon
Colombia Bojonawi
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Lake Ohrid and surrounding area
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Colombia Paramillo Natural National Park
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Macuira
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Lalzi Bay
Albania Velipoja
Colombia Chaviripa-El Rubí
Colombia Hato El Sinai

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ardea alba. Downloaded from on 08/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/12/2022.