NT
Great Snipe Gallinago media



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2015 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,730,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 80000-660000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -

Population justification: Its population size is poorly known, with estimates varying from c. 118,000–1,051,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012) to 450,000–1,000,000 individuals (V. Morozov in litt. 2007). The European population is estimated at 62,500-145,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 125,000-291,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is thought to be decreasing. Recently published data suggests that the European breeding population has probably declined overall by only c. 5–15% over the last three generations (14.4 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 4.8 years) (BirdLife International 2015). This trend is driven by the Russian population, which comprises >80% of the European population and is estimated to have declined by c. 5–10% during 2001–2012. Many national populations in central and eastern Europe are still declining (e.g. Belarus has lost several lek sites Mongin and Davidyonok 2014). Data from Asian Russia is limited but it is thought that the population there may be declining (R. Ekblom in litt. 2015, V. Morozov per A. Mischenko in litt. 2015), and overall a moderately rapid reduction is still suspected.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria U Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea U Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein U Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extinct
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland U Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Comana
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Orshinski marshes
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Sweden Lake Dättern
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Taavavuoma
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Ethiopia Sululta plain
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands
Kenya Busia grasslands
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Mozambique Gorongosa Mountain and National Park
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Semliki National Park
Zambia Hillwood
Zambia Chitunta Plain
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Nkanga River Conservation Area
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Chisamba
Zambia South Luangwa National Park
Zambia Shiwa Ng'andu
Estonia Kärevere
Latvia Vidusburtnieks
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Kolky village)
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Kalungwishi
Zambia Lavushi Manda National Park
Zambia Saise River
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Druzhinnoe lake and its outskirts
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Korodyn'k Creek Great Snipe Lek
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Belarus Servač
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Bierazino
Belarus Brody
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Hronava
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Struuga floodplain
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Latvia Burtnieks' meadows
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Burga meadows
Latvia Ruja flood-plain
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Armenia Amasia
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Lithuania Svyla River valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Jordan Jordan Valley
Jordan Azraq
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Jordan Shaumari
Zambia Uningi Pans
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Sweden Frostviken
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Polesie
Poland Por River Valley
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Szyszla River Valley
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Belarus Arechaŭskaje
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Belarus Liasnaja river
Romania Danube Delta
Lithuania Flooded meadows near Sausgalviai settlement
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Roztocze
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Øvre Forra
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella
Estonia Räpina polder
Georgia Batumi
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Belarus River valley of Dnieper: Berezina-Holmech
Belarus Pripiat
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Muddus

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land unset non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gallinago media. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/05/2020.