Great Snipe Gallinago media


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2015 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,730,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 80000-660000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -

Population justification: Its population size is poorly known, with estimates varying from c. 118,000–1,051,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012) to 450,000–1,000,000 individuals (V. Morozov in litt. 2007). The European population is estimated at 62,500-145,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 125,000-291,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is thought to be decreasing. Recently published data suggests that the European breeding population has probably declined overall by only c. 5–15% over the last three generations (14.4 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 4.8 years) (BirdLife International 2015). This trend is driven by the Russian population, which comprises >80% of the European population and is estimated to have declined by c. 5–10% during 2001–2012. Many national populations in central and eastern Europe are still declining (e.g. Belarus has lost several lek sites Mongin and Davidyonok 2014). Data from Asian Russia is limited but it is thought that the population there may be declining (R. Ekblom in litt. 2015, V. Morozov per A. Mischenko in litt. 2015), and overall a moderately rapid reduction is still suspected.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria U Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea U Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein U Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extinct
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland U Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Amasia
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bierazino
Belarus Brody
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Hronava
Belarus Liasnaja river
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Struuga floodplain
Estonia Väinameri
Ethiopia Sululta plain
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge
Georgia Batumi
Kenya Busia grasslands
Kenya Mau Narok - Molo grasslands
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Burga meadows
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Ruja flood-plain
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Vidusburtnieks
Latvia Ziemelgauja
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Flooded meadows near Sausgalviai settlement
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Svyla River valley
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Mozambique Gorongosa Mountain and National Park
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Øvre Forra
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Szyszla River Valley
Poland Tyszowce Site
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Wizna Swamps
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Druzhinnoe lake and its outskirts
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages
Russia (European) Flood-plain of rivers Usta and Vaya in Urenski district
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Korodyn'k Creek Great Snipe Lek
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Pereluchski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Tsna and Vysha rivers
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Sweden Frostviken
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Middagsfjället – Dörrshöjden
Sweden Taavavuoma
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Tanzania Moyowosi - Kigosi Game Reserves
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Semliki National Park
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Styr' river valley (Kolky village)
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Chisamba
Zambia Chitunta Plain
Zambia Hillwood
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Kafue National Park
Zambia Kalungwishi
Zambia Lavushi Manda National Park
Zambia Nkanga River Conservation Area
Zambia Saise River
Zambia Shiwa Ng'andu
Zambia South Luangwa National Park
Zambia Uningi Pans
Zambia West Lunga National Park and Lukwakwa Game Management Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land unset non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Gallinago media. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019.