LC
Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Ardenna gravis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 109,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.3 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 15,000,000 individuals. A minimum of 5,000,000 pairs are thought to breed at Tristan da Cunha, and 600,000 to 3,000,000 pairs at Gough (Carboneras 1992d).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Angola V Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antigua and Barbuda U Extant
Argentina U Extant
Australia V Extant
Bahamas U Extant
Barbados V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Canada U Extant
Cape Verde U Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Extant
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana U Extant
Gabon V Extant
Gambia U Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada U Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana N Extant Yes
Iceland U Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania U Extant
Mexico N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Namibia U Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway U Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) U Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Senegal U Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
South Africa U Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Lucia V Extant
St Martin (to France) U Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines U Extant
Suriname V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) U Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela U Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Canada Placentia Bay
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 28 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 34 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subantarctic major breeding
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Ardenna gravis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018.