Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis


Taxonomic note
Ardenna gravis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 109,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2004
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.3 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 15,000,000 individuals. A minimum of 5,000,000 pairs are thought to breed at Tristan da Cunha, and 600,000 to 3,000,000 pairs at Gough (Carboneras 1992).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Angola V Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antigua and Barbuda U Extant
Argentina U Extant
Australia V Extant
Bahamas U Extant
Barbados V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Canada U Extant
Cape Verde U Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Extant
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana U Extant
Gabon V Extant
Gambia U Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada U Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana N Extant Yes
High Seas N Extant Yes
Iceland U Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania U Extant
Mexico N Extant
Morocco V Extant
Namibia U Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway U Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) U Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Senegal U Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
South Africa U Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
St Lucia V Extant
St Martin (to France) U Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines U Extant
Suriname V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) U Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela U Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
France Cap Gris-nez
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Placentia Bay
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Guyana North-west Coastline
Uruguay Atlantic, Southwest 15 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 16 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 45 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 20 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 21 - Marine
Uruguay Atlantic, Southwest 35 - Marine
Brazil Atlantic, Southwest 25 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 26 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 34 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 27 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 28 - Marine
Brazil Atlantic, Southwest 31 - Marine
Brazil Atlantic, Southwest 32 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Tristan da Cunha - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island - Marine
Canada Atlantic, Northwest 5 - Marine
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subantarctic major breeding
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ardenna gravis. Downloaded from on 27/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2021.