EN
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bc+3bc+4bc A2bc+3bc+4bc

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bc+3bc+4bc
2015 Endangered A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Vulnerable A4bcd
2010 Vulnerable A4b,c,d
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,920,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 41,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 70-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 70-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population was estimated to number c. 380,000 individuals in 2006 (Wetlands International 2006). However following the reclamation of the tidal flats at Saemanguem (South Korea), c. 90,000 non-breeding individuals disappeared from the area. Surveys elsewhere in South Korea confirmed they had not been displaced, and a decline of the same magnitude and timing in Australia suggests that individuals previously using Saemanguem have died (D. Rogers in litt. 2009). Therefore a new global population was estimated at 292,000-295,000 individuals in 2007 (Wetlands International 2015).

Trend justification: An analysis of monitoring data from Australia and New Zealand suggests the population is declining at a much more rapid rate than was previously thought, with an estimated 77.8% decline over three generations (22 years) (Studds et al. in prep.). Almost the entire global population (98%) is restricted to the East Asian-Australasian Flyway so trends in the Australasian population during the non-breeding season are thought to be representative of the overall global population.

New data looking at adult survival supports these estimated rapid declines (Piersma et al. submitted). The study found that whilst survival in north-west Australia in winter remained constantly high, the survival rate during time away from Australia, declined from 2011. During 2011-2012 the annual survival rate for the species was 0.63 and annual breeding output was 0.15. Given such low survival rates the study estimates the species will halve in number within four years. If these rates are representative of the whole population then the declines stated here could be even more severe. Reclamation of Saemangeum (South Korea) alone has caused a decline of c. 90,000 individuals, equating to a population decline of approximately 25% since 2000 (N. Moores in litt. 2009, D. Rogers in litt. 2009). Furthermore there have been documented declines in some of the peripheral sites for the species in Australia and Japan (Amano 2006, R. Clemens in litt. 2010). Given that many more reclamation projects are proposed within the Yellow Sea region, it is reasonable to assume that declines will continue in the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Germany V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Singapore N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Anson Bay, Daly and Reynolds River Floodplains
Australia Arafura Swamp
Australia Cadell and Blyth Floodplains
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Australia Fog Bay and Finniss River Floodplains
Australia Great Sandy Strait
Australia Gulf Plains
Australia Limmen Bight
Australia Milingimbi Islands
Australia Moreton Bay and Pumicestone Passage
Australia Repulse Bay to Ince Bay
Australia Roebuck Bay
Australia Shoal Bay (Darwin)
Australia Tiwi Islands
Bangladesh Sonadia Island
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianyungang saltworks
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Oman Barr al Hikman
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Russia (Asian) Khayryuzova bay
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Singapore Kranji-Mandai
Singapore Ubin-Khatib
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Yubu-do island
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Altitude 300 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Calidris tenuirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017.