LC
Great Grey Owl Strix nebulosa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-99999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number approximately 190,000 individuals which equates to 127,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight Science Committee 2013). The North American population is estimated at 90,000 individuals or 60,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight Science Committee 2013). The European population is estimated at 1,900-7,500 pairs, which equates to 3,900-15,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 13% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 30,000-115,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is precautionarily placed in the band 50,000-99,999 mature individuals but the actual population could be considerably larger.

Trend justification: The overall trend is likely to be increasing. This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (4900% increase over 40 years, equating to a 166% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is also estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belarus N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extinct Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Sjaunja
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Litokaira
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Yugyd Va
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Redrovski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Central Forest Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Southern coast of Ladoga Lake
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Pizhemski reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Canada Amherst Island
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Norway Reisa
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Påkketan

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland marginal non-breeding
Forest Boreal major resident
Grassland Subarctic suitable resident
Shrubland Boreal suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - West Nile Virus (WNV) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Strix nebulosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020.