EN
Great Green Macaw Ara ambiguus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd; C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2005 Endangered
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,100,000 medium
Number of locations 5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor inferred 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimate to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, or fewer than 3,700 individuals in total, when juveniles and immatures are included (O. Jahn in litt. 2005, in litt. 2007). There were estimated to be 1,530 individuals in the southern Nicaragua - northern Costa Rica population in 2009 (Monge et al.  2010).

Trend justification: High annual deforestation rates combined with illegal capture for the pet trade and subsistence hunting mean there is little doubt that global populations have been reduced over the past three generations by >50 %.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos
Costa Rica Arenal-Monteverde
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands
Costa Rica Central Volcanic Cordillera
Costa Rica La Amistad Caribe
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco
Ecuador Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí
Ecuador Territorio Étnico Awá y alrededores
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca
Honduras Rio Platano
Honduras Tawahka
Nicaragua Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape
Nicaragua Bosawas
Nicaragua Indio Maíz
Nicaragua Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape
Nicaragua Musun Hill
Nicaragua Prinzapolka/Alamikamba Rivers
Nicaragua Punta Gorda
Nicaragua San Juan River - La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria
Nicaragua Silva Hill
Nicaragua Wawashan
Panama Bagre Biological Corridor
Panama Cerro Hoya National Park
Panama Darién National Park
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests
Panama La Amistad International Park
Panama Majé Hydrological Reserve
Panama Narganá Wildlands Area
Panama Serranía de Majé

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Ara ambiguus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2019.