CR
Great Green Macaw Ara ambiguus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A4abcd A4abcd; C1+2a(ii) A4abcd; C1+2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Critically Endangered A4abcd
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2005 Endangered
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500-1000 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-99 - - -
Number of subpopulations 6 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.2 - - -

Population justification: The species has a disjunct range and localised distribution. The population in Honduras currently numbers c. 400 individuals (H. O. Portillo Reyes per S. Nazeri in litt. 2020), which roughly equates to 260 mature individuals. The population in northern Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua numbered less than 200 individuals, equating to c. 130 mature individuals, in 2019 (Macaw Recovery Network 2019). In Ecuador, the species occurs in two disjunct subpopulations, with a total of up to 50-70 individuals, equating to 35-50 mature individuals, in 2020 (M. Moens per S. Nazeri in litt. 2020). In 2014, the population in Colombia was estimated at up to 1,700 mature individuals (Botero-Delgadillo and Páez 2011; Renjifo et al. 2014); however this is now considered an overestimate, with the true population size closer to 100 mature individuals (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). For Panama, recent population data is not available (B. Schmitt per S. Nazeri in litt. 2020). Based on these national numbers, the global population is now estimated to number at least 525 mature individuals; to account for uncertainty and an additional population in southern Panama, the global population is here placed in the band 500-1,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a decline caused by habitat destruction and capture for the cagebird trade. While the overall population in Ecuador numbered c. 60-90 individuals in 2002, it declined to 50-70 in 2020 (Benítez et al. 2002; E. Horstman and M. Moens per S. Nazeri in litt. 2020). This equates to a rate of decline of 34% over three generations for the national population in Ecuador. The subpopulation in Nicaragua and Costa Rica numbered 834 individuals in 2009, but was estimated at only up to 200 individuals in 2019 (Monge et al. 2010; Macaw Recovery Network 2019). This equates to a decline of 99% over three generations for Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Declines in Colombia further amount to at least 50-79% over three generations (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). There is no information on the rate of population changes in Honduras and Panama. In view of the threats that the species is facing, it is highly likely that the species is also undergoing rapid declines in these countries. Overall, the global population is estimated to decline at 80-99% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco
Ecuador Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí
Ecuador Corredor Awacachi
Ecuador Territorio Étnico Awá y alrededores
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé
Panama La Amistad International Park
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests
Panama Cerro Hoya National Park
Panama Majé Hydrological Reserve
Panama Serranía de Majé
Panama Narganá Wildlands Area
Panama Darién National Park
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor
Costa Rica Central Volcanic Cordillera
Nicaragua San Juan River - La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria
Nicaragua Indio Maíz
Nicaragua Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape
Costa Rica La Amistad Caribe
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands
Nicaragua Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape
Nicaragua Bosawas
Nicaragua Musun Hill
Nicaragua Silva Hill
Nicaragua Punta Gorda
Nicaragua Prinzapolka/Alamikamba Rivers
Costa Rica Arenal-Monteverde
Nicaragua Wawashan
Costa Rica Cureña
Panama Bagre Biological Corridor
Honduras Rio Platano
Honduras Tawahka
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ara ambiguus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/10/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/10/2022.