Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 183,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 189,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 609999-997000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.915,000-1,400,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 330,000-498,000 pairs, which equates to 660,000-997,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe the population is estimated to be declining moderately rapidly (BirdLife International 2015, EBCC 2018).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) U Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Belgium Nordzee
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xijin Reservoir
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Estonia Võrtsjärv
France Lac Léman (partie française)
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Pomeranian bay
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Schlei
Germany Selenter See
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dorudsan dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Son-Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Baga and Bayan Lakes
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
New Zealand Te Waihora
Poland Miedwie site
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Central Asian) Baganskiye Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Peschanokoledinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Travykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg
Russia (European) Southern coast of the Neva bay
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
South Africa Barberspan and Leeupan
South Africa Cape Whale Coast
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Rietvlei Wetland: Table Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves
South Africa Spitskop Dam
South Africa Verlorenvlei Estuary
South Africa Wilderness - Sedgefield Lakes Complex
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Rolle to Céligny
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Versoix and Hermance to Geneva
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Zambia Uningi Pans

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Competition, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Podiceps cristatus. Downloaded from on 20/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/01/2020.