LC
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo



References

Balmaki, B. and Barati, A. 2006. Harvesting status of migratory waterfowl in northern Iran: a case study from Gilan Province. In: Boere, G., Galbraith, C. and Stroud, D. (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 868-869. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bradbury, G., Trinder, M., Furness, B., Banks, A.N., Caldow, R.W.G. and Hume, D. 2014. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms. PLoS ONE 9(9): e106366.

Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

Bzoma, S. 2011. Strategia zarządzania populacją kormorana w Polsce. SGGW Warszawa.

Carss, D. N. 1994. Killing of piscivorous birds at Scottish fin fish farms, 1984-1987. Biological Conservation 68: 181-188.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Garthe, S.; Hüppop, O. 2004. Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(4): 724-734.

Gremillet, D. 1997. Catch per unit effort, foraging efficiency, and parental investment in breeding great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo carbo). ICES Journal of Marine Science 54(4): 635-644.

Gremillet, D., Liu, H., Le Maho, Y. and Carss, D.N. 2003. Great cormorants and freshwater fish stocks: a pragmatic approach to an ecological issue. Cormoran 13(2 (supplement no.58)): 131-136.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Kirby, J. S.; Holmes, J. S.; Sellers, R. M. 1996. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo as fish predators: an appraisal of their conservation and management in Great Britain. Biological Conservation 75: 191-199.

Kuiken, T. 1999. Review of Newcastle disease in Cormorants. Waterbirds 22(3): 333-347.

Leopold, M.F., Van Damme, C.J.G. and Van der Weer, H.W. 1998. Diet of cormorants and the impact of cormorant predation on juvenile flatfish in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Journal of Sea Research 40(1-2): 93-107.

Melville, D.S. and Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Oliveira, N. Henriques, A., Miodonski, J., Pereira, J., Marujo, D., Almeida, A., Barros, N., Andrade, J., Marçalo, J., Santos, I., Oliveira, B., Ferreira, M., Araújo, H., Monteiro, S., Vingada, J. and Ramírez, I. 2015. Seabird Bycatch in Portuguese Mainland Coastal Fisheries: An Assessment through on-Board Observations and Fishermen Interviews. Global Ecology and Conservation 3: 51-61.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Zydelis, R.; Bellebaum, J.; Österblom, H.; Vetemaa, M.; Schirmeister, B.; Stipniece, A.; Dagys, M.; van Eerden, M.; Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - an overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biological Conservation 142: 1269-1281.

Žydelis, R.; Small, C.; French, G. 2013. The incidental catch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries: A global review. Biological Conservation 162: 76-88.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources
Arkive species - Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax carbo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017.