LC
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo



References

Balmaki, B.; Barati, A. 2006. Harvesting status of migratory waterfowl in northern Iran: a case study from Gilan Province. In: Boere, G., Galbraith, C. and Stroud, D. (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 868-869. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bradbury, G.; Trinder, M.; Furness, B.; Banks, A.N.; Caldow, R.W.G.; Hume, D. 2014. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms. PLoS ONE 9(9): e106366.

Bregnballe, T. and Frederiksen, M. 2006. Net-entrapment of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in relation to individual age and population size. Wildlife Biology 12(2): 143-150.

Brown, L.H.; Urban, E.K.; Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

Bzoma, S. 2011. Strategia zarządzania populacją kormorana w Polsce. SGGW Warszawa.

Carss, D. N. 1994. Killing of piscivorous birds at Scottish fin fish farms, 1984-1987. Biological Conservation 68: 181-188.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Garthe, S.; Hüppop, O. 2004. Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(4): 724-734.

Gremillet, D. 1997. Catch per unit effort, foraging efficiency, and parental investment in breeding great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo carbo). ICES Journal of Marine Science 54(4): 635-644.

Gremillet, D., Liu, H., Le Maho, Y. and Carss, D.N. 2003. Great cormorants and freshwater fish stocks: a pragmatic approach to an ecological issue. Cormoran 13(2 (supplement no.58)): 131-136.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Kirby, J. S.; Holmes, J. S.; Sellers, R. M. 1996. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo as fish predators: an appraisal of their conservation and management in Great Britain. Biological Conservation 75: 191-199.

Kuiken, T. 1999. Review of Newcastle disease in Cormorants. Waterbirds 22(3): 333-347.

Leopold, M.F., Van Damme, C.J.G. and Van der Weer, H.W. 1998. Diet of cormorants and the impact of cormorant predation on juvenile flatfish in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Journal of Sea Research 40(1-2): 93-107.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Oliveira, N. Henriques, A., Miodonski, J., Pereira, J., Marujo, D., Almeida, A., Barros, N., Andrade, J., Marçalo, J., Santos, I., Oliveira, B., Ferreira, M., Araújo, H., Monteiro, S., Vingada, J. and Ramírez, I. 2015. Seabird Bycatch in Portuguese Mainland Coastal Fisheries: An Assessment through on-Board Observations and Fishermen Interviews. Global Ecology and Conservation 3: 51-61.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Zydelis, R.; Bellebaum, J.; Österblom, H.; Vetemaa, M.; Schirmeister, B.; Stipniece, A.; Dagys, M.; van Eerden, M.; Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - an overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biological Conservation 142: 1269-1281.

Žydelis, R.; Small, C.; French, G. 2013. The incidental catch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries: A global review. Biological Conservation 162: 76-88.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Cormorant Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources
Euro Bird Portal

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax carbo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019.