Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 323,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 304,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,400,000-2,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 401,000-512,000 pairs, which equates to 803,000-1,020,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Within its European range it is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) U Extant
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Greenland (to Denmark) Appat, Ritenbenk
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissut Avalliit (Ydre Kitsissut)
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Latvia Pape
Portugal Minho and Coura estuaries
Portugal Sado estuary
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Iceland Breidafjördur
Ireland Lough Derg (River Shannon)
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland Keeragh Islands
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Sovereign Islands
Ireland Bull and Cow Rocks
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Lough Cutra
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Connemara Bogs (south-east), including Roundstone Bog
Ireland Duvillaun Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Ardboline Island and Horse Island
Ireland Horn Head cliffs
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Skerries Islands
Ireland Illaunonearaun
Slovenia River Drava
Belgium Bassin de la Haine
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Vallée de la Dyle
Turkey Küçükçekmece Basin
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake
Palestine Wadi Gaza
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Dannskär – Örskär Islands
Sweden Bay of Svensksund
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Voornes Duin
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands De Wieden
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Naardermeer
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Hollands Diep
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Makkumer-and Kooiwaard
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Danube bend
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Maly Zhemchuzhny island
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Spain Bornos reservoir
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Medas islands
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Castrejón reservoir
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Cíes islands
Spain Ons islands
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Alicante islets
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Rochers de Biarritz : le Bouccalot et la Roche Ronde
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Falaise du Bessin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Iles Chausey
France Havre de la Sienne
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Basse vallée du Var
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Cap Fagnet
France Basse Ardêche
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Arjuzanx
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de la Souche
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Fowlsheugh
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Glannau Ynys Gybi/Holy Island Coast
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ramna Stacks and Gruney
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Sheep Island
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Eilean nan Ron
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
Italy Cuglieri coast
Italy Lakes Lesina and Varano
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Vincheto di Cellarda
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Taro river
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy Vico lake
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Casaraccio pool, Stintino saltpans and Pilo pool
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Ticino river
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Patoku lagoon
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slowinska Site
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissorsuit (Ederfugleøer)
Greenland (to Denmark) Qeqertaq
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Lake Dättern
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Lille Vildmose
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Forests near Brahetrolleborg
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia SÍňava
Slovakia Zemplínska Šírava
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Greenland (to Denmark) Taateraat in Evighedsfjorden
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Skogvoll (including Skarvklakken)
Norway Gjesværstappan
Norway Omgangsstauran
Norway Kongsøy
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Sklinna
Norway Froan
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Poland Puck Bay
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Yedikır Reservoir
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Lewitz
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Federseeried
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Selenter See
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Ammersee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Alfsee
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Germany Enz valley Mühlhausen - Roßwag
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Egypt Lake Bardawil
Egypt Zaranik Protected Area
Egypt El Malaha
Egypt Lake Manzala
Kenya Masinga reservoir
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Tunisia Lac de Tunis
Tunisia Îles Kerkennah
Tunisia Côte de Zerkine et El Grine
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Tunisia Lagune El Bibane
Tanzania Rubondo Island National Park
Tanzania Lake Victoria: Bumbire Islands
Uganda Lutoboka point (Ssese islands)
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Irbe strait
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Vasylivka village)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Sakarya Delta
Turkey Central Black Sea Coast
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Karkamış
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Hefer valley
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Russia (European) Dolgy Reef and Bol'shoi Fiskar archipelagos
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Taiwan, China Aogu Wetlands
Taiwan, China Fengshan Reservoir
Taiwan, China Kaoping River
Taiwan, China Kinmen National Park
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River
China (mainland) Aksu River basin
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Qiemo Oasis and Qarqan River
China (mainland) Hotan Oasis
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Unoyama
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Pakistan Jiwani Beaches and Dasht Kaur
Pakistan Outer Indus delta
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
India Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tenis
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Kurlady 2
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Gor'koye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurlady Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtaily lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes of Tobolo-Ishimskaya forest-steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Vilaine
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Etang des Landes
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Iles d'Hyères
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Marais de Sacy
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Archipel de Molène
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Canada Bird Islands
Canada Portnova Islands
Canada Basque Islands and Michaud Point
Canada Rocks off Fourchu Head
Canada Harbour Rocks
Canada Northern Head and South Head
Canada Ingonish Island
Canada The Capes
Canada Margaree Island
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île Shag
Canada Île Brion
Canada Rocher Le Corps Mort
Canada Dune du Sud
Canada Falaise aux Goélands and pointe de l’Est
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Île du Lac
Canada Baie des Loups
Afghanistan Bande Amir
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Kuwait Dawhat Kazima
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Qatar Al-Aliyah island
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Bulgaria Vardim Island
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Netherlands Markiezaat
United Kingdom Ynys Seiriol/Puffin Island
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Turkmenistan Gorelde
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Italy River Sesia heronries
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Russia (European) Taman'
Netherlands Zwanenwater & Pettemerduinen
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Turkey Marmara Lake
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Turkey Kozlu coast
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Kazachka
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Australia Lakes Alexandrina and Albert
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Schlei
Germany Untermain
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Mid Waterford Coast
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Clare Island cliffs
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Wicklow Head
Ireland Ireland's Eye
Ireland Clew Bay
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Olt valley
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Ilfov reservoir
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Kawau Island
New Zealand Bare Island (Motu-o-Kura)
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Saltbæk Vig
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Pakistan Jiwani Beaches and Dasht Kaur - Marine
Japan Inner Tokyo bay - Marine
Japan Unoyama - Marine
Greenland (to Denmark) Appat, Ritenbenk - Marine
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park - Marine
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli - Marine
Canada Bird Islands - Marine
Canada Harbour Rocks - Marine
Canada Basque Islands and Michaud Point - Marine
Canada Ingonish Island - Marine
Canada The Capes - Marine
Canada Margaree Island - Marine
Canada Île Paquet / Îlot C / Rocher Le Corps Mort - Marine
Canada Île Brion / Île Paquet - Marine
Canada Falaise aux Goélands/Pointe de l'Est - Marine
Canada Île du Lac / Îles Sainte-Marie - Marine
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Ethiopia Lake Zeway
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Norway Øra
Norway Solvær archipelago
Iraq Dukan Lake
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Norway Nykvåg
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Andotten
Norway Valvær
Norway Horsvær
Norway Humlingsvær
New Zealand Upper Buller
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Catlins Coast
New Zealand Main Chatham
New Zealand Dunstan Upper Clutha River
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Kunda
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Greece Valtou mountains
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Mauritania Chott Boul
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Ushkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
China (mainland) Xinghua Bay
China (mainland) Xiamen coast
China (mainland) Haifeng wetlands
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
Senegal Parc National des Iles de la Madeleine
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Mauritania Diawling National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Competition, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax carbo. Downloaded from on 08/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/12/2021.