Great Bustard Otis tarda


Alonso, J. c. 2014. The Great Bustard: past, present and future of a globally threatened species. Ornis Hungarica 22(2): 1-13.

Alonso, J. C.; Martín, C. A.; Alonso, J. A.; Palacín, C.; Magaña, M.; Lane, S. J. 2004. Distribution dynamics of a great bustard metapopulation throughout a decade: influence of conspecific attraction and recruitment. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1659-1674.

Alonso, J. C.; Morales, M. B.; Alonso, J.A. 2000. Partial migration, and lek and nesting area fidelity in female Great Bustards. Condor 102: 127-136.

Alonso, J. C.; Palacín, C. 2010. The world status and population trends of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda): 2010 update. Chinese Birds 1(2): 141-147.

Alonso, J. C.; Palacin, C.; Onrubia, A.; Abouloaufae, R.; Amezian, M.; El Idrissi Essougrati, A.; El Khamlichi, R.; Noaman, M. 2016a. Alarming decline and range reduction of the highly threatened Great Bustard Otis tarda in Morocco. Ostrich 87: 277-280.

Alonso, J. C.; Salgado, I.; Palacín, C. 2016b. Thermal tolerance may cause sexual segregation in sexually dimorphic species living in hot environments. Behavioral Ecology 27(3): 717-724.

Alonso, J.C., Martin, C.A., Palacin, C., Martin, B. and Magana, M. 2005. The great bustard Otis tarda in Andalusia, southern Spain: status, distribution and trends. Ardeola 52(1): 67-78.

Alonso, J.C., Palacin, C. and Martin, C.A. 2003. Status and recent trends of the great bustard (Otis tarda) population in the Iberian Peninsula. Biological Conservation 110(2): 185-195.

Antonchikov, A. N. 2008. The great bustard. In: Zubakin, V. and Lubimova, K. (eds), Rare avian species in the Important Bird Areas of Russia, pp. 45-50. Russian Bird Conservation Union., Moscow.

Antonchikov, A. N. 2011. Conservation of the great and little bustards in Volgograd region. Nauchnaya kniga, Saratov, Russia.

Bankovics, A.; Lóránt, M. 2008. Conservation of Otis tarda in Hungary - Layman's Report.

Barati, A., Abdulkarimi, R. and Alonso, J. C. 2015. Recent status and population decline of the Great Bustard Otis tarda in Iran. Bird Conservation International February 2015: 1-8.

Barati, A.; Amerifar, A. A. 2008. On the status of the Great Bustard, Otis tarda Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Otididae) in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East: 41-48.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Burnside, R.J., Carter, I., Dawes, A., Waters, D., Lock, L., Goriup, P. and Szekely, T. 2012. The UK great bustard Otis tarda reintroduction trial: a 5-year progress report. Oryx 46(1): 112-121.

Chan, S.; Goroshko, O. 1998. Action plan for the conservation of the Great Bustard. BirdLife Asia, Tokyo.

Dawes, A. 2008. Great Bustards: conservation through nest management and rear and release methods. Proceedings of a Great Bustard Group conference Salisbury, England, 26th - 29th November 2007. Great Bustard Group, Winterbourne Gunner, Wiltshire, UK.

Doğa Derneği ve T.C. Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı, Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü. 2004. Türkiye’nin Toyları, Toy Ulusal Eylem Planı. Ankara.

Faragó, S. 1993. Development of Great Bustard populations in Hungary in the period 1981--1990. Folia Zoologica 42: 221-236.

IUCN; HCEFLCD. 2016. Conservation Strategy and Action Plan for the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) in Morocco 2016-2025. UCN/HCEFLD, Malaga, Spain.

Karakaş, R. and Akarsu, F. 2009. Recent status and distribution of the Great Bustard, Otis tarda, in Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 48: 25-34.

Kessler, A. E. 2015. Asian Great Bustards: from conservation biology to sustainable grassland development. Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.

Kessler, A. E. and Smith, A. T. 2014. The Status of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda tarda) in Central Asia: from the Caspian Sea to the Altai. Aquila 121: 115-132.

Kessler, A. E., Batbayar, N., Natsagdorj, T., Batsuur’, D. and Smith, A. T. 2013. Satellite telemetry reveals long-distance migration in the Asian great bustard Otis tarda dybowskii. Journal of Avian Biology 44: 311-320.

Kessler, M. 2016. Современный статус дрофы в центральной азии и шаги к ее сохранению [Modern status of the Great Bustard in Central Asia and the steps for its preservation]. Степной Бюллетень [Steppe Bulletin] 46: 61-69.

Kollar, H. P. 1996. Action plan for the Great Bustard (Otis tarda). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 245-260. Council of Europe, and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.

Magaña, M.; Alonso, J. C.; Martín, C. A.; Bautista, L. M.; Martín, B. 2010. Nest-site selection by Great Bustards Otis tarda suggests a trade-off between concealment and visibility. Ibis 152(1): 77-89.

Martin, C. A.; Alonso, J. C.; Morales, M. B.; Lane, S. J. 2001. Seasonal movements of male Great Bustards in central Spain. Journal of Field Ornithology 72: 504-508.

Martín, C. A.; Martínez, C.; Bautista, L. M.; Martín, B. 2012. Population increase of the Great Bustard Otis tarda in its main distribution area in relation to changes in farming practices. Ardeola 59: 31-42.

Morales, M. B., Alonso, J. C., Alonso, J. A. and Martín, E. 2000. Migration patterns in male great bustards (Otis tarda). Auk 117: 493-498.

Nagy, Szabolcs. 2009. International single species action plan for the Western Palearctic population of Great Bustard, Otis tarda tarda. BirdLife International on behlaf of the European Commission.

Oparin, M. L.; Oparina, O. S.; Kondratenkov, I. A.; Mamaev, A. B.; Piskunov, V. V. 2013. Factors causing long-term dynamics in the abundance of the Trans-Volga Great bustard (Otis tarda L.) population. Biology Bulletin 40(10): 843-853.

Palacín, C., Alonso, J. C., Alonso, J. A., Martín, C. A., Magaña, M. and Martín, B. 2009. Differential migration by sex in the great bustard: possible consequences of an extreme sexual size dimorphism. Ethology 115: 617-626.

Palacín, C., Alonso, J.C., Alonso, J.A., Martín, C.A. & Magaña, M. 2011. Cultural transmission and flexibility of partial migration patterns in a long-lived bird, the Great Bustard Otis tarda. Journal of Avian Biology 42: 301–308.

Palacín, C.; Alonson, J. C. 2008. An updated estimate of the world status and population trends of the Great Bustard Otis tarda. Ardeola 55(1): 13-25.

Palacín, C.; Martín, B.; Onrubia, A.; Alonso, J.C. 2016. Assessing the extinction risk of the great bustard Otis tarda in Africa. Endangered Species Research 30: 73-82.

Pinto, M.; Rocha, P.; Moreira, F. 2005. Long-term trends in Great Bustard (Otis tarda) populations in Portugal suggest concentration in single high quality area. Biological Conservation 124: 415-423.

Raab, R., Schütz, S., Spakovszky, P., Julius, E. and Schulze, C.H. 2012. Underground cabling and marking of power lines: conservation measures rapidly reduced mortality of West-Pannonian Great Bustards Otis tarda. Bird Conservation International 22: 299-306.

Raab, R.; Schütz, C.; Spakovszky, P.; Julius, E.; Schulze, C. H. 2014. Optimising the attractiveness of winter oilseed rape fields as foraging habitat for the West Pannonian Great Bustard Otis tarda population during winter. Bid Conservation International 25(3): 366-376.

Rocha, P.; Morales, M. B.; Moreira, F. 2013. Nest site habitat selection and nesting performance of the Great Bustard Otis tarda in southern Portugal: implications for conservation. Bird Conservation International 23(3): 323-336.

Torres, A.; Palacín, C.; Seoane, J.; Alonso, J. C. 2011. Assessing the effects of a highway on a threatened species using before–during–after and before–during–after-control–impact designs. Biol. Conserv. 144: 2223-2232.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Bustard Specialist Group

Action Plan for the Great Bustard in Europe

Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) Memorandum of Understanding and Conservation Plan

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Otis tarda. Downloaded from on 15/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 15/10/2021.