VU
Great Bustard Otis tarda



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Vulnerable A3cd+4cd
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 20,100,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10 - - -

Population justification: Alonso (2014) estimates the global population to number 43,847 – 56,695 individuals, rounded here to 44,000-57,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to have historically undergone a rapid population decline, owing to habitat loss and fragmentation for agricultural intensification, as well as hunting and collision with power lines. There is a lack of accurate data on current trends in several countries with important populations (e.g. parts of Russia, Mongolia, China), although declines have continued in some range states especially in eastern and central Europe, Morocco, as well as throughout the eastern part of the global distribution (Chan and Goroshko 1998, Barati and Amerifar 2008, Palacín and Alonso 2008, Oparin et al. 2013, BirdLife International 2015, Alonso et al. 2016b, M. Karataş in litt. 2016). In other areas (notably Hungary, Germany, Austria and the Iberian Peninsula) the population has been increasing or potentially stable since the 1990s (see Nagy 2009, Martín et al. 2012, BirdLife International 2015, J. Garrido in litt. 2017). Therefore, declines in the recent past are not thought to be significant (see Alonso 2014, Palacín and Alonso 2008, Alonso and Palacín 2010). However, the population in the Iberian Peninsula may now (at least in some local areas) be starting to decline or have very low productivity (J. C. Alonso in litt. 2017, Y. Perlman in litt. 2017). With continued agricultural expansion and climate change likely to impact the species even more into the future, the species is precautionarily considered to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline over a 3 generation period (30 years), which will continue or potentially increase into the future. Should research show the species to be declining at a more moderate rate, it would warrant downlisting to a lower category of threat.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania V Extant
Algeria U Extinct
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes Yes
Belarus N Extinct
Belgium V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Egypt V Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extinct
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea V Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Poland N Extinct Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extinct Yes
Switzerland V Extinct Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extinct
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Campo Maior
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Turkey Acıgöl Lake
Turkey Altıntaş Plateau
Turkey Aliken
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Turkey Lake Van
Greece Evros delta
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Moson Plain
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Kolon Lake
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Gerje-sik
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) Vicinity of Voznesensk village
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Rovno area
Russia (European) Zhestyanka
Spain La Janda
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Alto Guadiato
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain La Serena
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Botoa-Villar del Rey
Spain Lácara-Morante
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Oropesa plains
Spain Torrijos
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Tarancón-Ocaña-Corral de Almaguer
Spain San Clemente-Villarrobledo
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Fuentelapeña-Jambrina
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain Topas
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Alange
Spain Don Benito-Guareña
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Esla dam
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Campo Visiedo
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Campo de Calatrava
Spain Villalba de los Barros
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Slovakia Syslovské fields
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Turkey Tuz Lake
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Fiener Bruch
Morocco Oued Tahadart
North Macedonia River Zletovska valley
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village)
Ukraine Gajchur river valley
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Ukraine Chauda
Turkey Upper Murat Valley
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Hafik Zara Hills
Turkey Yüksekova
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i Jowin and Rud-i Kalshur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shirvan area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tayebad plains at Ghoomi and Sarhad
Iran, Islamic Republic of Divandareh/Zarrineh Owbatu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Plains near Ghorveh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Telesm plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gordeh Git and Mamiyand
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Drofiny area
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Erdniyevskaya area
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidagang
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dabusu Hu
China (mainland) Yaojingzi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yiwulü Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honggolj Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulgai
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bayan Obo Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Daqinggou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Caimushan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Damaoqi
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Karamay desert and lakes
China (mainland) Baytik Shan
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami
China (mainland) Ayding Kol
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain
China (mainland) Helan Shan Nature Reserve (Ningxia)
China (mainland) Minqin
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Qilihai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Binzhou coastal islands
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Weinan Sanhe wetlands
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Anhui)
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Lake Bujon
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Urul'guveem hollow
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Agar-Dag
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Zeleni Dol village
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Dolinny area
Russia (European) Fields near village Voskresenk
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Novokrivovka
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Il'inka
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Russia (European) Yasnaya Polyana site
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Timofeevo
Russia (European) Estonka site
Russia (European) Kumysni pond site
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Lepekhinka
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Rekord
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Pervomaiskoye
Russia (European) Kobzar' site
Portugal Cuba
Armenia Sardarapat
France Crau
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Balka Yablonya
Russia (European) Vicinity of Eruslan village
Mongolia Tarialan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Kazakhstan Arystandy
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Syria Golan Heights
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Ukraine Elanetskyj step Reserve
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Turkey Bismil Plain
Turkey Ceylanpınar
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Turkey Muş Plain
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Turkey Yenipazar
Turkey Sarayönü
Turkey Samsam Lake
Turkey Van Plains
Turkey Kavuştuk Peninsula
Turkey Patnos
Turkey Karasu Plain
Russia (European) Dudarevskaya steppe
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village
Russia (European) Vicinity of Poltavka village
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Plane lowlands
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Trappenschongebiet Jüterbog
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Mongolia Selenge - Teel
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Nomrog
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Mongolia Ulaagchinii Khar Lake
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Jinta
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Spain River Moros
Spain Layna high moors
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Pedroches Occidentales
Spain Albacete - Barrax - La Roda
Spain La Manchuela Conquense
Portugal São Pedro Sólis
Portugal Torre da Bolsa
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Montenegro Cemovsko Field
Turkey Akçakale Plains
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin
Spain Torrejón de Velasco - Secanos de Valdemoro
Spain Baja Alcarria
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Greece Thessaly plain
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Armenia Arax River
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Turkey Kars Plain
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Otis tarda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2020.