Great Auk Pinguinus impennis


Bengtson, S. - A. 1984. Breeding ecology and extinction of the Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis): anecdotal evidence and conjectures. The Auk 101(1): 1-12.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Birkhead, T. 1994. How collectors killed the Great Auk? New Scientist 1927: 24-27.

Bourne, W. R. P. 1993. The story of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis. Archives of Natural History 20: 257-278.

Grieve, S. 1885. The Great Auk, or Garefowl (Alca impennis Linn.): its history, archeology and remains. Grange Publishing Works, Edinburgh, UK.

Halliday, T. R. 1979. The Great Auk. Oceans 12: 27-31.

Hobson, K. A.; Montevecchi, W. A. 1991. Stable isotope determination of the trophic status of the Great Auk. Oecologia 87: 528-531.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Livezey, B. C. 1988. Morphometrics of flightlessness in the Alcidae. The Auk 105: 681-698.

Lyngs, P. 1994. Gejrfuglen. Et 150 års minde. Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift 88: 49-72.

Montevecchi, W. A.; Kirk, D. A. 1996. Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 260, pp. 1-20. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Olson, S. L.; Swift, C. C.; Mokhiber, C. 1979. An attempt to determine the prey of the Great Auk Pinguinus impennis. The Auk 96: 790-792.

Further resources

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pinguinus impennis. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/great-auk-pinguinus-impennis on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/09/2023.