VU
Great Argus Argusianus argus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2acd+3cd+4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A2acd+3cd+4acd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,430,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 0
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.9 - - -

Population justification: The total population has been estimated to number more than 100,000 individuals, based on available habitat, but it is undergoing a steep decline in most of the range, especially Sumatra (McGowan and Kirwan 2020) but also southern Thailand (Dawrueng et al. 2017), and the current population size is likely to be smaller. Previously known from more than 130 sites across the Sundaic lowlands (McGowan et al. 1998), it is certainly very scarce now at a number of these, such as Way Kambas National Park, and likely to be absent from some. In Indonesia, it is only considered secure in reserves and well-managed forests (McGowan and Kirwan 2020).

Trend justification: There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be in decline at a moderately rapid rate, owing to hunting and habitat loss.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extinct Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Thailand Khao Luang
Thailand Khao Nor Chuchi
Thailand Khao Banthad
Thailand Thaleban
Thailand Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park
Thailand Bala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Bu Do - Sungai Padi
Indonesia Sangkulirang
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Crocker Range
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Selangor Heritage Park
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia Tawau Hills Park
Malaysia Ulu Muda
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Namtok Huai Yang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Argusianus argus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/06/2022.