NT
Great Antpitta Grallaria excelsa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened C2a(i); D1
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 26,000 km2 medium
Area of Occupancy (breeding/resident) 11,000 km2
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals poor inferred 2022
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2016-2032
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Generation length 5.26 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 3-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified. Tentatively assuming that the species occurs at the same density as a congener (G. varia: 3 mature individuals/km2; Santini et al. 2018) and further assuming that only 10% of the range is occupied to account for its apparent rarity, the population may number 1,800 mature individuals. To account for uncertainty, it is here placed in the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining as a consequence of the loss of its habitat through deforestation (Greeney 2020). Within the range, tree cover loss is however low, amounting to <2% over three generations (15.8 years; Global Forest Watch 2022, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The species is restricted to humid forest, though may potentially tolerate some habitat degradation (Greeney 2020); therefore, declines are unlikely to exceed 10% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Colombia possibly extant native yes
Venezuela extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Parque Nacional Páramos Batallón y La Negra and surrounding areas
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá
Venezuela Monumento Natural Pico Codazzi
Venezuela Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada
Venezuela Parque Nacional Yacambú

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1460 - 2570 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Grallaria excelsa. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/great-antpitta-grallaria-excelsa on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.