Goosander Mergus merganser


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 82,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 100,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,700,000-2,400,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,800-103,000 pairs, which equates to 134,000-206,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is not known, although some populations are increasing, some decreasing, some stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extinct Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Canada Niagara River Corridor
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Croatia Cetina River
Denmark Arresø
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Norsminde (Kysing) Fjord
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Greece Lake Kastoria
Iceland Apavatn-Laugarvatn
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Sog
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Latvia Nida-Perkone
Latvia Seaway to the border with Lithuania
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Tanamunningen
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Vistula river mouth
Romania Black Sea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Olt valley
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Kuril'skoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Serbia Karadjordjevo
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Srednja Sava
South Korea Han-gang river
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Sweden Lake Skedviken
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Rolle to Céligny
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Versoix and Hermance to Geneva
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
USA Niagara River Corridor
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Altitude 1900 - 1900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mergus merganser. Downloaded from on 28/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/01/2020.