Goosander Mergus merganser


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 82,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 100,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,700,000-2,400,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 66,800-103,000 pairs, which equates to 134,000-206,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is not known, although some populations are increasing, some decreasing, some stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extinct Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Varduva River and Varduva Reservoir
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Lithuania Valley of Minija River
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Latvia Sita and Pededze flood-plain
Latvia Engure lake
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Latvia Latvia, west coast
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Slovenia River Drava
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Iceland Apavatn-Laugarvatn
Iceland Sog
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Surroundings of Kiyesh'yaur lake
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Littoral Augeron
France Forêts du Perche
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Bonne Anse
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Oire
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
Italy Po Delta
Sweden Lake Åsnen
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Arresø
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area
Denmark Hovvig
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Mossø
Denmark Salten Langsø
Denmark Norsminde (Kysing) Fjord
Denmark Nissum Bredning
Denmark Flyndersø and Stubbergård Lake
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Vorma
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Poland Puck Bay
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Grangettes
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Versoix and Hermance to Geneva
Switzerland Lake Geneva: Rolle to Céligny
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lewitz
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Warder See
Germany Selenter See
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Schlei
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Ammersee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Alfsee
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Federseeried
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Sweden Kalmar – Skäggenäs
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Seaway to the border with Lithuania
Latvia Nida-Perkone
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Kuril'skoye lake
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
South Korea Han-gang river
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtaily lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shie Chertany Lake
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Brenne centrale
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Canada Sumallo River/Skagit Valley
Canada Lambert Channel/Hornby Island Waters
Canada Mussel and Kynoch Inlet and Sheep Passage
Canada Codroy Valley Estuary
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Pittock Reservoir
Canada Matchedash Bay
Canada Wildwood Gull Roost
Canada Lower Detroit River
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Austria Machland
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Salzach valley
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Lake Skedviken
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Poland Slowinska Site
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Mergen
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands De Wieden
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Croatia Cetina River
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
USA Niagara River Corridor
Germany Thülsfeld reservoir
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Eastern bight of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Obersee: Schachener Bucht
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Gravel pits Krauchenwies-Zielfingen
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Eder alluvion
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Olt valley
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Denmark Furesø and Farum Sø
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Odense Fjord
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Czarna River Valley
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Srednja Sava
Belarus Braslav lakes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Karadjordjevo
Serbia Donje Podrinje
Norway Øvre Forra
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Norway Persfjorden-Hamningberg
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Koorunõmme
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Luitemaa
Albania Patoku lagoon
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Altitude 1900 - 1900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mergus merganser. Downloaded from on 28/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/09/2020.