Golden Parakeet Guaruba guarouba


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 498,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6600-13400 medium estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals, based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. However, recent information suggests the population may be larger than this. The species has been recorded at several additional locations (Laranjeiras and Cohn-Haft 2009), and a recent survey along the Tapajós river by Laranjeiras (2011) indicated that it was as common in the study area as other, non-threatened Psittacids. The population in this study area (a strip of c.340 km along the Tapajós river, western Pará), which encompasses no more than 5% of the total area of suitable habitat for the species, was estimated at 500 individuals, representing the largest known population. A highly conservative extrapolation of 1 individual per 16 km2 across 174,000 km2 of suitable habitat within the known Extent of Occurrence gives an estimate of c.10,875 individuals (Laranjeiras 2011). On the basis of this information, the population is placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 individuals, assumed to include c.6,600-13,400 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species is suspected to lose 23.3-30.9% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (22 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over the next three generations. It should be noted, however, that this may be rather precautionary, as trapping of this species for trade (although extensive in the past) is no longer thought to have a significant impact on the wild population (L. F. Silveira in litt. 2012, A. C. Lees in litt. 2013). In addition, its level of forest-dependence is regarded as not as high as some non-threatened Psittacids in the region (A. C. Lees in litt. 2013).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Gurupi
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Rio Capim
Brazil Jamanxim / Altamira
Brazil Parque Nacional da Amazônia
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo
Brazil Jamari
Brazil Ji-Paraná / Roosevelt
Brazil Baixo Rio Xingu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Guaruba guarouba. Downloaded from on 09/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/03/2021.