Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos


Bedrosian, G., Carlisle, J. D., Woodbridge, B., Dunk, J. R., Wallace, Z. P., Dwyer, J. F., Harness, R. E., Mojica, E. K., Williams, G. E. and Jones, T. 2020. A spatially explicit model to predict the relative risk of Golden Eagle electrocutions in the Northwestern Plains, USA. Journal of Raptor Research 54(2): 110-125.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. In prep.. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

Derlink, M., Wernham, C., Bertoncelj, I., Kovács, A., Saurola, P., Duke, G., Movalli, P. and Vrezec, A. 2018. A review of raptor and owl monitoring activity across Europe: its implications for capacity building towards pan-European monitoring. Bird Study 65: S4-S20.

Dwyer, J. F., Murphy, R. K., Stahlecker, D. W., Dwyer, A. M. and Boal, C. W. 2020. Golden Eagle perch-site use in the U.S. Southern Plains: Understanding electrocution risk. Journal of Raptor Research 54(2): 126-135.

Ellis, D. H. 2020. Ecology of the Golden Eagle in Mongolia, Part 1: Breeding Distribution and Nest-Site Descriptions. Journal of Raptor Research 54(1): 18-29.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Fernández, C. 1993. Effect of the Viral Haemorrhagic Pneumonia of the Wild Rabbit on the diet and breeding success of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaëtos) (L.). Revue d'Ecologie - La Terre Et La Vie 48: 323-329.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Katzner, T. E., Brandes, D., Miller, T., Lanzone, M., Maisonneuve, C., Tremblay, J. A., Mulvihill, R., Merovich Jr, G. T. 2012. Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 1178–1186.

Niedringhaus KD, Nemeth NM, Gibbs S, Zimmerman J, Shender L, Slankard K, et al. 2021. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the United States. PLoS ONE 16(4): e0246134.

Partners in Flight. 2020. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2020. Available at:

Partners in Flight. 2020. Population Estimates Database, version 3.1. Available at:

RSPB. 2017. Satellite tags shine a light in dark places. Legal Eagle 81: 15.

Smith, J. P., Lenihan, C. M., and Zirpoli, J. A. 2020. Golden Eagle Breeding Response to Utility-Scale Solar Development and Prolonged Drought in California. Journal of Raptor Research 54(2): 154-165.

US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2016. Bald and Golden Eagles: Population Demographics and Estimation of Sustainable Take in the United States, 2016 Update. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.

Watson, J. 2010. The Golden Eagle. T. & A.D. Poyser, London.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Aquila chrysaetos. Downloaded from on 01/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/12/2022.