Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 140,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 139,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-200000 poor estimated 2013
Population trend Stable estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number approximately 300,000 individuals which equates to 200,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight Science Committee 2013). The European population is estimated at 9,300-12,300 pairs, which equates to 18,500-24,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 16% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 116,00-153,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. Precautionarily the population is placed in the band 100,000-200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015) however given that the European population constitutes a small proportion of the global population the overall trend is considered stable.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extinct Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Lura
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Armenia Gorayk
Armenia Haghartsin
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Meghri
Armenia Zangezoor
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Karwendel
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia Mount Mosor, Kozjak and Trogir Hinterland
Croatia Mount Ucka and Cicarija
Croatia Mount Velebit
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
France Forêts domaniales de Corse
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Haut Giffre
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Mangfall mountains and Rotwand area
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Italy Abruzzo National Park
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Alpi Apuane
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Dolomites
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Mount Sette Fratelli and Sarrabus
Italy Orobie Alps and pre-Alps
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Rhaetian Alps
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Val d'Ossola
North Macedonia Jakupica Mountain
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Norway Alta-Kautokeino watercourse
Palestinian Authority Territories Jebel Al-Ras - Wadi Al-Makhrour
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Poprad Site
Poland Slonne Mountains
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Defileul Crişului Repede - Iadului valley
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Trascău Mountains
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Priel'brus'ye National Park
Russia (European) Uryuk
Russia (European) Vodlozero
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovakia Levocské hills
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Ayllón mountain range
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Gorges of Iregua, Leza and Jubera
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez
Spain Marina mountain ranges
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Montes Universales-Albarracín mountain range
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Peñagolosa
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Pila mountain range
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain River Jalón canyon
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Munzur Mountains
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Central Highland Hills and Glens
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Cuillins
United Kingdom Foinaven
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Glen Etive and Glen Fyne
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
United Kingdom Jura, Scarba and the Gravellachs
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Loch Maree and Nearby Lochs and Mountains
United Kingdom Moidart and Ardgour
United Kingdom North Harris Mountains
United Kingdom Park, Lewis
United Kingdom Rois-bheinn
United Kingdom Rois-Bheinn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 6200 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aquila chrysaetos. Downloaded from on 19/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/01/2020.