Gola Malimbe Malimbus ballmanni


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i)
2018 Endangered A2c+3c+4c
2016 Endangered A2c+3c
2012 Endangered A2c+3c+4c
2008 Endangered A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 75,300 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,380
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-3 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: The population in Liberia's Sapo National Park has recently been estimated at roughly 22,000 individuals, based on density estimates and sightings of 34 individual birds (Freeman et al. 2018). However, extrapolated data for the total population must be treated with caution as the species appears to be very rare and localised in the western part of its range (J. Lindsell in litt. 2007). A survey of Cavalla Forest in 2012 did not find any individuals of this species, despite it being previously described as common in south east Liberia by Gatter & Gardner (1993) (Phalan et al. 2013). Additional surveys in the Gola Forest Landscape, in both Sierra Leone and Liberia in 2013 and 2017, found this species to be patchily distributed,with no obvious reason for this distribution pattern (J. Wardill, S. Wotton and F. Sanderson in litt. 2020). Therefore, the overall population size is tentatively suspected to fall in the band of 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, but further population surveys may alter this figure in future.

Trend justification: The population is inferred to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation (Global Forest Watch, 2021; B. Phalan in litt. 2020).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Côte d'Ivoire Cavally and Goin - Debe Forest Reserves
Liberia Zwedru
Liberia Cestos - Senkwen
Liberia Sapo
Sierra Leone Gola Forests
Guinea Massif du Ziama
Sierra Leone Gola Forest Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Malimbus ballmanni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.