Goias Parakeet Pyrrhura pfrimeri


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2c+3c+4c A2c+3c+4c

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered A2c+3c+4c
2016 Endangered A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered A2c; A3c; A4c; B1a+b(ii,iii,v)
2007 Endangered
2006 Not Evaluated
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,800 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 12000-20000, 16000 medium estimated 2021
Population trend decreasing poor estimated 2009-2022
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 23-72,54 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 23-72,54 - - -
Generation length (years) 4.34 - - -

Population justification: It is locally common within its restricted range (Olmos et al. 1997).

Surveys in 1995 recorded individuals at a density of 198 per km2 in larger blocks of dry forest (considered likely to be an overestimate due to an uneven distribution of a food plant), 23 per km2 in isolated fragments of forest, and 60-75 per km2 across the whole of the Nova Roma area (thought to be a more accurate estimate; Olmos et al. 1997). Based on an estimated remaining area of forest in 1995 of c.2,700 km2 and a population density of 60-75 individuals per km2, the population size was estimated at 162,000 - 202,500 individuals, although it was noted that this may have been an overestimate because the area where surveys took place may have contained more remaining habitat than other parts of the species's range (Olmos et al. 1997).

Surveys across the species's range in 2007-2008 estimated the density to be 11.7 (9-15) individuals per km(Bianchi 2010). Based on an estimated area of remaining forest of 4,352 km2, the population size was estimated at 39,168–65,280 individuals (Bianchi 2010).

In 2020, the population was suspected to fall in the range of 20,000 - 25,000 individuals (T. Dornas in litt. 2020). According to remote sensing data on tree cover and tree cover loss, there may be approximately 2,000 km2 of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover remaining within the species's range in 2021 (Global Forest Watch 2021). Based on the population density estimates from 2007-2008 (9-15 individuals per km2), the population size in 2021 is here estimated to fall within the range 18,000 - 30,000 individuals, roughly equating to 12,000 - 20,000 mature individuals, with a best estimate of 16,000.

The subpopulation structure is not known. The species generally stays within 300 m of forest with limestone outcrops (Bianchi 2010), although it has been recorded up to 1.5 km away (Dornas and Pinheiro 2018), so it is able to travel at least short distances between patches of forest.

Trend justification: Local people have observed a sharp decline in the species's abundance since the 1970s, when flocks numbering in the hundreds were frequently observed, in contrast to flocks up of up to 20-30 individuals nowadays (T. Dornas and E.R. Luiz, pers. comm., in Dornas and Pinheiro 2018). During field surveys in 2007-2008, the species was not found in some small forest fragments where the species had been recorded less than a decade before (Bianchi 2010). The species has not been recorded at the river Inferno in Tocantins since 2012, suggesting local extinction in this area (T. Dornas and F. Pesqueiro, pers. comm. in Dornas and Pinheiro 2018).

An analysis of remote sensing data found that the area of dry forest habitat within the Paranã River Basin decreased by 66.3% over 31 years from 1977-2008 (35.7% between 1977-1993/94 and 47.6% between 1993/94-2008, leaving a remaining forest area of 4,352 km2; Bianchi 2010). The latter rate of forest loss would equate to a reduction of 44% over three generations (13 years).

Habitat fragmentation increased significantly, with the number of patches of ? 2.5 km2 increasing from 3.9% of the forest extent in 1977 to 38.4% in 2008 (Bianchi 2010). 

More recently, remote sensing data indicates that approximately 10% of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover was lost from within the species's mapped range over three generations from 2008 (Global Forest Watch 2021). Extrapolating forwards, up to 12% of tree cover may be lost from the species's range over the next three generations. The species's population size is also likely to be impacted by ongoing forest degradation through logging and increasing fragmentation of remaining habitat, so may be expected to decline faster than the rate of forest loss.

The population size has been estimated at 162,000 - 202,500 individuals in 1995 (Olmos et al. 1997), 39,168–65,280 individuals in 2008 (Bianchi 2010), and 18,000 - 30,000 individuals in 2021. 

Based on the estimates for 2008 and 2021, the population size is estimated to have undergone a reduction of between 23% and 72% over the past three generations (13 years), with a best estimate of 54%. The rate of decline is assumed to continue into the future as threats continue.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Terra Ronca
Brazil Aurora do Tocantins / Taguatinga
Brazil Vale do Rio Palmeiras

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura pfrimeri. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/goias-parakeet-pyrrhura-pfrimeri on 29/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/09/2023.