LC
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 180,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 166,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 230,000-2,220,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 28,300-37,700 pairs, which equates to 56,500-75,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 200,000-2,300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have stable trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (3,800% increase over 40 years, equating to a 150% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Luxembourg N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) V Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia N Extant
Solomon Islands V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains
Australia Arafura Swamp
Australia Cooper Floodplain Below Windorah
Australia Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Chengene Skele
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Chad Lake Chad
Costa Rica Maleku - Caño Negro
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands
Cuba Delta del Cauto
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes
Ecuador Ciénaga de La Segua
Greece Acheron delta and gorge
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evros delta
Greece Evrota delta
Greece Geropotamos estuary
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Schinias marsh
Honduras El Jicarito
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
India Kunthangulam Bird Sanctuary
India Narasambudhi Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Zevulun valley
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Fucecchio marsh
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex
Malawi Lake Chilwa and flood-plain
Mali Koumbé Niasso
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mexico Pantanos de Centla
Niger Tillabéri roost
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Panama Santa María Wetlands
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Ianca - Plopul - Sărat
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Tataru
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Saudi Arabia Makkah waste-water stream
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Senegal Lac de Guiers
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Tanzania Lake Rukwa
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Uganda Doho Rice Scheme
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Kytaj lake
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
USA Barrier Island/Lagoon System
USA Hillsborough Bay
USA Raccoon Island
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Khorezm Fish Farm and adjacent lakes
Uzbekistan Mashankul and Khojakul lake complex
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Zambia Kafue Flats

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Plegadis falcinellus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/03/2019.