EN
Glittering Starfrontlet Coeligena orina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered C2a(i)
2017 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2010 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 7 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,700 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-2499 poor estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously estimated to fall below 250 mature individuals. The species has also been described as rare (Carantón and Suárez 2014). In the Colibri del Sol ProAves Reserve in Antioquia, it has been observed on average at 3.8 individuals a day, with a maximum of 18 individuals recorded in a day in 2014 (Cortés et al. 2020). However, further information suggests that previous population estimates may have been a substantial underestimate (Renjifo et al. 2014). The population is thought to occur at low densities nevertheless, with a the most recent population density estimate thought to number 7.77 individuals/km2 (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). Assuming that the species occurs in only parts of the area of mapped range, the population may therefore number 1,554 individuals, converted to 1,036 mature individuals. Due to uncertainty in exact densities however, the population is thought to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals in any case. It is thus tentatively placed in the band of 250-2,499 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a decline, which is mainly caused by loss and degradation of its habitat and the adverse impacts of climate change. Forest loss has been low over the past ten years (<1%,  Global Forest Watch 2020). However, political unrest has resulted in a nationwide increase in deforestation, particularly since 2015, including forest loss in the high elevational forests of the Western Cordillera (Cortés et al. 2020, Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). On the northern slope of the Paramo del Sol for example, 9.5% of forest cover had decreased since 2000, of which 35% has been since 2018 (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). Mining activities within the range may expand in the future (Cortés et al. 2020).The species is furthermore heavily impacted by climate change: Its habitat was found to be highly susceptible to severe droughts and forest fires, which can destroy large tracts of habitat within a short period and lead to a rapid contraction of its restricted range (Cortés et al. 2020, Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020). Population declines are therefore tentatively placed in the band 1-19% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Bosques Montanos del Sur de Antioquia
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas
Colombia Orquideas - Musinga - Carauta
Colombia Farallones de Cali Natural National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Altitude 2950 - 3400 m Occasional altitudinal limits 1800 - 3500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Coeligena orina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021.