Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,370,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,500,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.570,000 individuals (Delany and Scott 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing (Delany and Scott 2006), although some populations are stable. This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada extant native yes yes
China (mainland) extant vagrant
Hong Kong (China) extant vagrant
Japan extant native yes
Mexico extant native yes
Morocco extant vagrant
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Spain extant vagrant
USA extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Baynes Sound
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Chain Islets and Great Chain Islet
Canada Kyuquot Channel Islets
Canada Lambert Channel/Hornby Island Waters
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
USA Agattu Island Colonies
USA Amagat & Umga Island Colonies
USA Attu Island Colony
USA Barren Islands Colonies
USA Bering Sea Shelf 163W56N
USA Bering Sea Shelf 165W56N
USA Bering Sea Shelf 166W56N
USA Bering Sea Shelf 166W57N
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 166W55N
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 168W56N
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 169W55N
USA Bird Island Colony
USA Buldir & Near Islands Marine
USA Cape Tanak Marine
USA Cinder River Marine
USA Copper River Delta
USA East Sand Island
USA Egg Island Colonies
USA Fenimore Pass & Atka Island Marine
USA Glacier Bay & Icy Strait
USA Gulf of Alaska Shelf 151W58N
USA Gulf of Alaska Shelf Edge 163W54N
USA Ilnik Marine
USA Kachemak Bay
USA Kagamil Island Marine
USA Kamishak Bay
USA Kenai Fjords
USA Kiska Island Colonies
USA Kiska Island Marine
USA Lower Cook Inlet 153W59N
USA Morzhovoi Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon Colonies
USA Northern Montague Island
USA Prince William Sound
USA Protection Island
USA Sand and Gunpowder Islands
USA Seal Cape Marine
USA Semidi Islands Marine
USA Shumagin Islands Marine
USA Ugamak Strait Colonies
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus glaucescens. Downloaded from on 09/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/06/2023.