Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bustnes, J. O.; Hanssen, S. A.; Folstad, I.; Erikstad, K. E.; Hasselquist, D.; Skaare, J. U. 2004. Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 47: 530-541.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Evans, P. G. H. 1984. The seabirds of Greenland: their status and conservation. In: Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 49-84. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Verreault, J.; Bech, C.; Letcher, R. J.; Ropstad, E.; Dahl, E.; Gabrielsen, G. W. 2007. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones. Environmental Pollution 145: 138-145.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus hyperboreus. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023.