Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua


Baylis, A.M.M., Crofts, S., Wolfaardt, A.C. 2013. Population trends of Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at the Falkland Islands. Marine Ornithology 41: 1–5.

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Bingham, M. 2002. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 805-818.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Bost, C.A.; Jouventin, P. 1990. Evolutionary ecology of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua). In: Darby, J.T.; Davis,L.S. (ed.), Penguin Biology, Academic Press, Orlando, U.S.A.

Clausen, A., & Pütz, K. 2002. Recent trends in diet composition and productivity of gentoo, Magellanic and rockhopper penguins in the Falkland Islands. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12: 51-61.

Clausen, A.P.; Huin, N. 2003. Status and numerical trends of king, gentoo, and rockhopper penguins breeding in the Falkland Islands. Waterbirds 26(4): 389-402.

Convey, P.; Morton, A.; Poncet, J. 1999. Survey of marine birds and mammals of the South Sandwich Islands. Polar Record 35(193): 107-124.

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Crawford, R. J. M., Ellenberg, U., Frere, E., Hagen, C., Baird, K., Brewin, P. Crofts, S., Glass, J., Mattern, T. & Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Crawford, R. J. M., Whittington, P. A., Upfold, L., Ryan, P. G., Petersen, S. L., Dyer, B. M. & Cooper, J. 2009. Recent trends in numbers of four species of penguins at the Prince Edward Islands. African Journal of Marine Science 31(3): 419-426.

Crawford, R.J.M.; Dyer, B.M.; Upfold, L.; Makhado, A.B. 2014. Congruent, decreasing trends of Gentoo Penguins and Crozet Shags at sub-Antarctic Marion Island suggest food limitation through common environmental forcing. African Journal of Marine Science 36: 225–231.

Crofts, S. & Stanworth, A. 2019. Falkland Islands Seabird Monitoring Programme ‐ Annual Report 2018/2019 (SMP26). Falklands Conservation, Stanley.

de Dinechin, M., Dobson, F.S., Zehtindjiev, P., Metcheva, R.,Couchoux, C., Martin, A., Quillfeldt, P., Jouventin, P. 2012. The biogeography of Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua). Canadian Journal of Zoology 90(3 ): 352-360.

Ducklow, H.W.; Fraser, W.R.; Meredith, M.P.; Stammerjohn, S.E.; Doney, S.C.; Martinson, D.G.; Sailley, S.F.; Schofield, O.M.; Steinberg, D.K.; Venables, H.J.; Amsler, C.D. 2013. West Antarctic Peninsula: An ice-dependent coastal marine ecosystem in transition. Oceanography 26(3): 190–203.

Dunn, M. J., Forcada, J., Jackson, J. A., Waluda, C. M., Nichol, C. & Trathan, P. N. 2019. A long-term study of gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) population trends at a major Antarctic tourist site, Goudier Island, Port Lockroy. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(1): 37-53.

Dunn, M.J.; Jackson, J.A.; Adlard, S.; Lynnes, A.S.; Briggs, D.R.; Fox, D.; Waluda, C.M. 2016. Population size and decadal trends of three penguin species nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0164025.

Dyer, B.M.; Crawford, R.J.M. 2015. Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua. In: Taylor, M.R.; Wanless, R.M.; Peacock, F. (ed.), The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Ellis, S., Croxall, J. P. & Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Forcada, J.; Trathan, P. N. 2009. Penguin responses to climate change in the Southern Ocean. Global Change Biology 15: 1618-1630.

Fraser, W.R. 2016. A new survey of the Rosenthal Islands. Report submitted to the U.S. National Science Foundation, Division of Polar Programs, Arlington, VA, USA: 6 pp.

Ghys, M. I.; Rey, A. R.; Schiavini, A. 2008. Population trend and breeding biology of Gentoo Penguin, Martillo Island, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Waterbirds 31(4): 625-631.

Hinke, J.T.; Cossio, A.M.; Goebel, M.E.; Reiss, C.S.; Trivelpiece, W.Z.; Watters, G.M. 2017. Identifying risk: Concurrent overlap of the Antarctic krill fishery with krill-dependent predators in the South Atlantic. PLoS One 12(1): e0170132.

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Jouventin, P. 1994. Les populations d'oiseaux marins des T.A.A.F.: résumé de 20 années de recherche. Alauda 62: 44-47.

Lescroël, A. & Bost, C.A. 2005. Foraging under contrasted oceanographic conditions: the Gentoo Penguin at Kerguelen Archipelago. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302: 245-261.

Lescroel, A.; Bost, C. A. 2006. Recent decrease in Gentoo Penguin populations at Iles Kerguelen. Antarctic Science 18: 171-174.

Lynch, H. J., Crosbie, K., Fagan, W. F. and Naveen, R. 2010. Population trends and reproductive success at a frequently visited penguin colony on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 33: 493-503.

Lynch, H. J.; Naveen, R.; Fagan, W. F. 2008. Censuses of penguins, Blue-eyed Shags and Southern Giant Petrel populations on the Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2007. Marine Ornithology 36: 83-97.

Lynch, H.J.; Fagan, W.F.; Naveen, R.; Trivelpiece, S.G.; Trivelpiece, W.Z. 2009. Timing of clutch initiation in Pygoscelis penguins on the Antarctic Peninsula: Towards an improved understanding of off-peak census correction factors. CCAMLR Science 16: 149-165.

Lynch, H.J.; Naveen, R.; Trathan, P.N.; Fagan, W.F. 2012. Spatially integrated assessment reveals widespread changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ecology 93: 1367-1377.

Lynch, H.L. 2013. The Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua). In: García Borboroglu, P.G.; Boersma P.D. (ed.), Biology and Conservation of the World’s penguins, University of Washington Press, Seattle U.S.A.

Otley, H.M.; Clausen, A. P.; Christie, D.J.; Pütz, K. 2004. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua at Volunteer Beach, Falkland Islands, 2001/02. Marine Ornithology 32: 167-171.

Pistorius, P.A.; Huin, N.; Crofts, S. 2010. Population change and resilience in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua at the Falkland Islands. Marine Ornithology 38: 49–53.

Tanton, J.L.; Reid, K.; Croxall, J.P.; Trathan, P.N. 2004. Winter distribution and behaviour of Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua at South Georgia. Polar Biology 27: 299-303.

Trathan, P.N.; Daunt, F.H.J.; Murphy, E.J. 1996. South Georgia: An Ecological Atlas. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.

Trathan, P.N.; Forcada, J.; Atkinson, R.; Downie, R.H.; Shears, J.R. 2008. Population assessments of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at an important Antarctic tourist site, Goudier Island, Port Lockroy, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. Biological Conservation 141(12): 3019-3028.

Vianna, J.A., Noll, D., Dantas, G.P., Petry, M.V., Barbosa, A., González-Acuña, D., Le Bohec, C., Bonadonna, F. and Poulin, E. 2017. Marked phylogeographic structure of Gentoo penguin reveals an ongoing diversification process along the Southern Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107: 486-498.

Weimerskirch, H.; Zotier, R.; Jouventin, P. 1988. The avifauna of the Kerguelen islands. Emu 89: 15-29.

Woehler, E.J. 1993. The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic penguins. Scientific Commission on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, U.K.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Pygoscelis papua. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.