LC
Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A2be+3be+4be
2010 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 53,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 774000 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7 - - -

Population justification: Populations are increasing at most sites where they are monitored on the Antarctic Peninsula, particularly at those sites at the southern extent of the breeding range (Lynch et al. 2008, Ducklow et al. 2013, Lynch 2013); here regional populations have grown by more than 1,100% since 1974 (e.g., the Palmer Archipelago, Fraser 2016; Fountain et al. in press). However, at some sites, significant inter-annual variability in the numbers returning to breed is now evident (Fraser unpublished), suggesting that prior rates of increase may be slowing.

Trend justification: Probably stable, or increasing in the southern part of the range. Likely decreasing in the southwest Indian Ocean. Rates of change simulated from integrating diverse census data from 70 breeding sites in the southwest Atlantic across 31 years in a robust, hierarchical analysis, showed that average rates of increase are 2.4% ± 0.3% per annum (Lynch et al. 2012). At Marion Island in the southwest Indian Ocean there was a 52% decrease in 18 years or 2.1 generations between 1994 and 2012 equivalent to a 74% decrease in three generations (Dyer and Crawford 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Antarctica Admiralty Bay and adjacent waters
Antarctica Ardley Island, King George Island
Antarctica Cuverville Island
Antarctica Islet south of Gerlache Island
Antarctica Petermann Island
Antarctica West Admiralty Bay, King George Island
Antarctica Yankee Harbour, Greenwich Island
Argentina Canal Beagle
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur
Argentina Islas Malvinas
Argentina Islas Sandwich del Sur
Australia Macquarie Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beauchêne Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beaver Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bertha's Beach, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bull Point, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hope Harbour, West Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Jason Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Keppel Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Lively Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Passage Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pebble Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Saunders Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Sea Lion Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Seal Bay, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Speedwell Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Volunteer Point, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) West Point Island Group
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île Foch, Île Sainte Lanne Gramont and Île Howe
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny
French Southern Territories Péninsule Courbet
French Southern Territories Péninsule Rallier du Baty
French Southern Territories Southern coast of Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Heard and McDonald Islands
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Recent
Fuel Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pygoscelis papua. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.