VU
Gang-gang Cockatoo Callocephalon fimbriatum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bc+3bc+4bc

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 256 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 401,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 17600-35200, 25300 mature individuals poor estimated 2020
Population trend decreasing - inferred 2007-2034
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 30-49% - - -
Generation length 8.9 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: The estimate used here is the product of three predicted AOO measures (spanning 22,700-40,000 km2) from Cameron et al. (2021), the smallest being the number of 2x2 km squares for which there are records since 1990, the latter being an arbitrary value of nearly double this to account for incomplete survey effort of potentially suitable habitat. The density applied assumes an average density of 3.1 birds/km2, that the 2019–2020 fire season reduced the carrying capacity of 40% of grid cells by half and resulted in 10% mortality (Cameron et al. 2021). Combining these measures and uncertainty creates a likely population estimate of between 17,600 and 35,200 mature individuals, with a most likely figure (the midpoint) of 25,300.

Trend justification:

It is estimated that the 2019–2020 fire season reduced the carrying capacity of 40% of grid cells by half and resulted in 10% mortality (Cameron et al. 2021). Apart from fire impacts, trend data are not entirely consistent. Reporting rates from 500-m radius area searches (20,094 individuals; 328,201 surveys), arguably the most reliable of the available survey methods for the species, declined by 69% from 1999–2019. This follows a significant decline of 22% between 1977–1981 and 1998–2001 (Barrett et al. 2002), including a decline of 44% in New South Wales (Barrett et al. 2007). 

However, the decline in 2-ha 20-min surveys from 1999–2019 (8,987 individuals; 267,885 surveys) was only 15% (BirdLife Australia 2020). In the Australian Capital Territory, reporting rates were three times higher in 1987–1989 than the fairly stable reporting rate since (Canberra Ornithologists Group 2020). Combining these analyses and incorporating temporal and spatial uncertainties, Cameron et al. (2021) best estimated a global rate of decline of 30-49% over the past three generations (27 years; Bird et al. 2020).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Australia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Callocephalon fimbriatum. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/gang-gang-cockatoo-callocephalon-fimbriatum on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 22/02/2024.