VU
Galapagos Rail Laterallus spilonota



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Laterallus spilonota (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as L. spilonotus.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C1+2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable C1+2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2013 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,100 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-6700 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 6 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The population was estimated to number 5,000-10,000 individuals by Rosenberg (1990), and repeat surveys on Santa Cruz Island in 2000 gave broadly similar results. This roughly equates to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a slow decline. The rate of decline was extrapolated from a decline in detections of 9% (c.f. 1986-1987 surveys) during 2000 surveys on Santa Cruz (Gibbs et al. 2003). By 2007, the decline was steeper (Shriver et al. 2011). Therefore, the population decline is here tentatively placed in the band 1-19% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Isla San Cristóbal
Ecuador Tierras altas de Santa Cruz
Ecuador Tierras altas de Isabela
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela
Ecuador Tierras altas de Santiago

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bos taurus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cinchona pubescens Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Equus caballus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Asio flammeus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Tyto alba Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Laterallus spilonota. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/03/2021.