Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus


Boersma, P.D. 1977. An ecological and behavioural study of the Galápagos penguin. Living Bird 15: 43-93.

Boersma, P.D. 1978. Galápagos penguins as indicators of oceanographic conditions. Science 200: 1481-1483.

Boersma, P.D. 1998. Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin: impacts of El Niño and La Niña. Condor 100: 245-253.

Boersma, P.D., Steinfurth, A., Merlen, G., Jímeñez-Uzcategui, G., Vargas, H., and P. Parker. 2015. Pingüino de Galápagos (Spheniscus mendiculus). En Pingüinos: Historia Natural y Conservación (Garcia-Borboroglu and Boersma eds.) Vazquez Mazzini Editores. Buenos Aires, Argentina: 308-328.

Boersma, P.D.; Cappello, C.D.; Merlen, G. 2017. First observations of post-fledging care in Galápagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 129(1): 186-191.

Boersma, P.D.; Steinfurth, A.; Merlen, G.; Jímeñez-Uzcategui, G.; Vargas, H.; Parker, P. 2013. Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). In: Garcia-Borboroglu, P.; Boersma, P.D. (ed.), Penguins: Natural History and Conservation, pp. 286-302 . University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Boersma, P.D.; Vargas, H.; Merlen, G. 2005. Living laboratory in peril. Science 308: 925.

Cepeda, F. and Cruz, J.B. 1994. Status and management of seabirds on the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. In: Nettleship, D.N.; Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (ed.), Seabirds on islands: threats, case studies and action plans, pp. 268-278. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Deem, S.L.; Merkel, J.; Ballweber, L.; Vargas, F.H.; Cruz, M.B.; Parker, P.G. 2010. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and Flightless Cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(3): 1005-1011.

Eisenmann, E. 1956. Galápagos penguin in Panama. Condor 58: 74.

Ellis, S., Croxall, J. P. & Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Houghton, J., Ding, Y., Griggs, D., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C. 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Third Assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Karl, T.R.; Trenberth, K.E. 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302(5651): 1719-1724.

Karnauskas, K.B., Cohen, A.L., and Gove, J.M. 2016. Mitigation of Coral Reef Warming Across the Central Pacific by the Equatorial Undercurrent: A Past and Future Divide. Scientific reports 6: 21213.

Karnauskas, K.B., Jenouvrier, S., Brown, C.W., and R. Murtugudde. 2015. Strong sea surface cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and implications for Galápagos Penguin conservation. Geophysical Research Letters 42 (15): 6432-6437, doi: 10.1002/2015GLO64456.

Levin, I.I.; Outlaw, D.C.; Vargas, F.H.; Parker, P.G. 2009. Plasmodium blood parasite found in endangered Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). Biological Conservation 142: 3191-3195.

Levin, I.I.; Zwiers, P.; Deem, S.L.; Geest, E.A.; Higashiguchi, J.M.; Iezhova, T.A.; Jimenez-Uzcategui, G.; Kim, D.H.; Morton, J.P.; Perlut, N.G.; Renfrew, R.B.; Sari, E.H.R.; Valkiunas, G.; Parker, P.G. 2013. Multiple lineages of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds. Conservation Biology 27: 1366-1377.

Mills, K.L. 2000. Diving behaviour of two Galápagos Penguins Spheniscus mendiculus. Marine Ornithology 28: 75-79.

Mills, K.L.; Vargas, H. 1997. Current status, analysis of census methodology, and conservation of the Galápagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus. Notícias de Galápagos 58: 8-30.

Palacios, D.M., Bograd, S.J., Foley, D.G. and Schwing, F.B. 2006. Oceanographic characteristics of biological hot spots in the North Pacific: a remote sensing perspective. Deep-Sea Research II 53(3-4): 250-269.

Ridgely R.S.; Gwynne, J.A. 1976. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. Princeton University Press.

Steinfurth, A. 2007. The Marine Ecology and Conservation of the Galápagos Penguin. University of Kiel.

Steinfurth, A.; Merlen, G. 2005. Predación de gatos salvajes (Felis catus) sobre el pingüino de Galápagos (Spheniscus mendiculus) en Caleta Iguana, Isla Isabela.

Steinfurth, A.; Vargas, F.H.; Wilson, R.P.; Spindler, M.; Macdonald, D.W. 2008. Space use by foraging Galápagos Penguins during chick rearing. Endangered Species Research 4: 105-112.

Trathan, P.N., Garcia-Borboroglu, P., Boersma, D., Bost, C.A., Crawford, R.J.M., Crossin, G.T., Cuthbert, R.J., Dann, P., Davis, L.S., De La Puente, S., Ellenberg, U., Lynch, H.J., Mattern, T., Putz, K., Seddon, P.J., Trivelpiece, W. and Wienecke, B. 2014. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins. Conservation Biology 29(1): 31-41.

Travis, E.K.; Vargas, F.H.; Merkel, J.; Gottdenker, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Miller, E.; Parker, P.G. 2006. Hematology, serum chemistry, and disease surveillance of the Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3): 625-632.

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Trenberth, K.E.; Hoar, T.J. 1996. The 1990-1995 El Niño-southern oscillation event: longest on record. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 57-60.

Vargas, F. H., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation . Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Vargas, F.H. 2006. The ecology of small populations of birds in a changing climate. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oxford.

Vargas, F.H.; Lacy, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Steinfurth, A.; Crawford, R.J.M.; Boersma, P.D.; Macdonald, D.W. 2007. Modelling the effects of El Niño on the persistence of small populations: the Galápagos Penguin as a case study. Biological Conservation 137(1): 138-148.

Vargas, H.; Lougheed, C.; Snell, H. 2005. Population size and trends of the Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus. Ibis 147: 367-374.

Whiteman, N.K.; Goodman, S.J.; Sinclair, B.J.; Walsh, T.; Cunningham, A.A.; Kramer, L.D.; Parker, P.G. 2005. Establishment of the avian disease vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Ibis 147: 844-847.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Spheniscus mendiculus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022.