EN
Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus



References

Boersma, P.D. 1977. An ecological and behavioural study of the Galápagos penguin. Living Bird 15: 43-93.

Boersma, P.D. 1978. Galápagos penguins as indicators of oceanographic conditions. Science 200: 1481-1483.

Boersma, P.D. 1998. Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin: impacts of El Niño and La Niña. Condor 100: 245-253.

Boersma, P.D., Cappello, C.D., and Merlen, G. In press. First Observations of Post-Fledging Care in Galápagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). Wilson Bulletin.

Boersma, P.D., Steinfurth, A., Merlen, G., Jímeñez-Uzcategui, G., Vargas, H., and P. Parker. 2013. Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). In Penguins: Natural History and Conservation (Garcia-Borboroglu and Boersma eds.) University of Washington Press. Seattle, WA.: 286-302.

Boersma, P.D., Steinfurth, A., Merlen, G., Jímeñez-Uzcategui, G., Vargas, H., and P. Parker. 2015. Pingüino de Galápagos (Spheniscus mendiculus). En Pingüinos: Historia Natural y Conservación (Garcia-Borboroglu and Boersma eds.) Vazquez Mazzini Editores. Buenos Aires, Argentina: 308-328.

Boersma, P.D., Vargas, H. and Merlen, G. 2005. Living laboratory in peril. Science 308: 925.

Cepeda, F. and Cruz, J.B. 1994. Status and management of seabirds on the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. In: Nettleship, D.N.; Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (ed.), Seabirds on islands: threats, case studies and action plans, pp. 268-278. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Deem, S.L., Merkel, J., Ballweber, L., Vargas, F.H., Cruz, M.B. and Parker, P.G. 2010. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and Flightless Cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(3): 1005-1011.

Eisenmann, E. 1956. Galápagos penguin in Panama. Condor 58: 74.

Ellis, S., Croxall, J.P. and Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Houghton, J., Ding, Y., Griggs, D., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C. 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Third Assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Karl, T.R., Trenberth, K.E. 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302(5651): 1719-1724.

Karnauskas, K.B., Cohen, A.L., and Gove, J.M. 2016. Mitigation of Coral Reef Warming Across the Central Pacific by the Equatorial Undercurrent: A Past and Future Divide. Scientific reports 6: 21213.

Karnauskas, K.B., Jenouvrier, S., Brown, C.W., and R. Murtugudde. 2015. Strong sea surface cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and implications for Galápagos Penguin conservation. Geophysical Research Letters 42 (15): 6432-6437, doi: 10.1002/2015GLO64456.

Levin, I. I., Outlaw, D.C., Vargas, F.H. and Parker, P.G. 2009. Plasmodium blood parasite found in endangered Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). Biological Conservation 142: 3191-3195.

Levin, II, P Zwiers, SL Deem, EA Geest, JM Higashiguchi, TA Iezhova, G Jimenez-Uzcategui, DH Kim, JP Morton, NG Perlut, RB Renfrew, EHR Sari, G Valkiunas, PG Parker. 2013. Multiple lineages of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds. Conservation Biology 27: 1366-1377.

Mills, K.L. 2000. Diving behaviour of two Galápagos Penguins Spheniscus mendiculus. Marine Ornithology 28: 75-79.

Mills, K.L. and Vargas, H. 1997. Current status, analysis of census methodology, and conservation of the Galápagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus. Notícias de Galápagos 58: 8-30.

Palacios, D.M., Bograd, S.J., Foley, D.G. and Schwing, F.B. 2006. Oceanographic characteristics of biological hot spots in the North Pacific: a remote sensing perspective. Deep-Sea Research II 53(3-4): 250-269.

Ridgely R.S. and J.A. Gwynne. 1976. A guide to the birds of Panama. Princeton University press.

Steinfurth, A. 2007. The marine ecology and conservation of the Galápagos penguin. Ph.D. thesis, University of Kiel.

Steinfurth, A. and Merlen, G. 2005. Predación de gatos salvajes (Felis catus) sobre el pingüino de Galápagos (Spheniscus mendiculus) en Caleta Iguana, Isla Isabela.

Steinfurth, A., Vargas, F.H., Wilson, R.P., Spindler, M. and Macdonald, D.W. 2008. Space use by foraging Galápagos Penguins during chick rearing. Endangered Species Research 4: 105-112.

Trathan, P.N., Garcia-Borboroglu, P., Boersma, D., Bost, C.A., Crawford, R.J.M., Crossin, G.T., Cuthbert, R.J., Dann, P., Davis, L.S., De La Puente, S., Ellenberg, U., Lynch, H.J., Mattern, T., Putz, K., Seddon, P.J., Trivelpiece, W. and Wienecke, B. 2014. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins. Conservation Biology 29(1): 31-41.

Travis, E.K., Vargas, F.H,, Merkel, J., Gottdenker, N., Jiménez Uzcátegui, G., Miller, E. and Parker, P.G. 2006. Hematology, serum chemistry, and disease surveillance of the Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3): 625-632.

Trenberth K.E., Hoar, T.J. 1997. El Niño and climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 24(23): 3057-3060.

Trenberth, K.E., Hoar, T.J. 1996. The 1990-1995 El Niño-southern oscillation event: longest on record. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 57-60.

Vargas, F. H., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation . Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Vargas, F.H. 2006. The ecology of small populations of birds in a changing climate. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oxford.

Vargas, F.H., Lacy, R.C., Johnson, P.J., Steinfurth, A., Crawford, R.J.M., Boersma, P.D. and Macdonald, D.W. 2007. Modelling the effects of El Niño on the persistence of small populations: the Galápagos Penguin as a case study. Biological Conservation 137(1): 138-148.

Vargas, H., Lougheed, C. and Snell, H. 2005. Population size and trends of the Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus. Ibis 147: 367-374.

Whiteman, N.K., S.J. Goodman, B.J. Sinclair, T. Walsh, A.A. Cunningham, L.D. Kramer, P.G. Parker. 2005. Establishment of the avian disease vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Ibis 147: 844-847.

Further resources

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources
Arkive species - Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Spheniscus mendiculus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2017.