EN
Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bde; B2ab(iii,v)c(iv); C2a(ii)b A2bde; B1ab(iii,v)c(iv)+2ab(iii,v)c(iv); C1+2a(ii)b; D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2bde; B2ab(iii,v)c(iv); C2a(ii)b
2016 Endangered A2bde; B2ab(iii,v)c(iv); C2a(ii)b
2012 Endangered A2bde;B1ab(v)c(iv)+2ab(v)c(iv);C2a(ii)b
2010 Endangered A2b,d,e; B1a+b(v)+c(iv); B2a+b(v)+c(iv); C2a(ii); C2b
2008 Endangered A2b,d,e; B1a+b(v)+c(iv); B2a+b(v)+c(iv); C2a(ii); C2b
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,500 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 19,600 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 90 medium
Number of locations 4 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1200 good estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-80 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-80 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.2 - - -

Population justification:

Although the population is small, the exact size is unknown: it could have been as low as 700 individuals in 1983 or as high as 10,000 in 1971. The population in 2009 was likely between 1,800 and 4,700 individuals (Boersma et al. 2013, 2015). The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in 1971-1972, 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 reduced the number of penguins to half of the number seen in the early 1970s (Boersma 1977, Mills and Vargas 1997, Boersma 1998, Ellis et al. 1998, Vargas et al. 2005, 2006, 2007, Boersma et al. 2013, 2015). A count of 1,009 Galápagos Penguins in 2007 was half the number counted in 1970 (2,020) and 1971 (2,099) (Boersma et al. 2013, 2015).

Trend justification: The species declined by 60% between 1970 and 2004, equating to 60% over 34 years (three generations). The ‘‘Current El Niño-scenario, based on the frequency of El Niño events recorded in the Galápagos between 1965 and 2004, indicates a probability of extinction of approximately 30% within the next 100 years (Vargas et al. 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Isla Floreana
Ecuador Humedales del Sur de Isabela
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major resident
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 40 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Scewed sex ratios, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Plasmodium relictum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Shipping lanes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Spheniscus mendiculus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2020.