LC
Gadwall Mareca strepera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Mareca strepera (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 73,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 113,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,300,000-4,900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 75,400-125,000 pairs, which equates to 151,000-250,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing however some populations are decreasing, while others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (506% increase over 40 years, equating to a 56.9% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extinct Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands U Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Cyprus Akhna dam
Latvia Engure lake
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Ballyallia lake
Belgium Zegge
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Demervallei
Belgium Vijverkomplex van Midden Limburg
Belgium De Maten
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Haçlı Lake
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake)
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Borecka forest
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Oswin site
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slup reservoir
Poland Nietlice marshes
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Hollands Diep
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Zoommeer
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Zwarte Meer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Lake Wolderwijd
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Witte en Zwarte Brekken
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain River Ebro dam
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Marais de la Souche
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Rezabinec pond
Czechia Zehunský rybník pond
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Sweden Lake Dättern
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Maribo lakes
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Machland
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Poland Barycz river valley
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Ammersee
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Wesseker See
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Selenter See
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Rodachaue / Itzgrund / Oberes Maintal incl. Nassanger near Trieb and surrounding gravel pits
Germany Obersee: Schachener Bucht
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Lac Tonga
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Algeria Garaet Haouas
Morocco Merja Zerga
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Kuressare bay
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Pasleka river valley
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Haur Al Haushiya
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
China (mainland) Cang Shan Er Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Bardha Dam
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
India Kanjli Lake
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Prostyr
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Koigi
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Karas'ye village
Russia (Central Asian) Bottomland rivers Miass at village Zharnikovo
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Travykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bog Mamynkul and lake Alakul
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Russia (Central Asian) Yudinsky stretch
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Puchina area
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Manjas Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Myrkaj Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Utich Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Alekaj Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Terenkul' and Gagar'e Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Butash and Gor'koye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gorbunnoe and Solenoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Kadkul', Alabuga and Tirikul' Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koe, Krivoe and Zhuravlinoe Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Yakush Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kazanskaya flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Etang du Bagnas
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Pointe de Grave
France Forêt de la Reine
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Tirikul' and Kadkul' lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Whitewater Lake
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Réserve nationale de faune des Îles-de-Contrecoeur
Canada Île Deslauriers
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Paysen/Kettlehut Lake
Canada Eyebrow Lake
Canada Cumberland Marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Austria Western Waldviertel
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Austria Ibmer Moor
United Kingdom Upper Nene Valley Gravel Pits
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Korgankol Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk Lake
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Italy Lake Viverone
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Netherlands Oostzanerveld
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Netherlands De Wieden
Syria Baath Lake
Slovenia Črete
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Belarus Arechaŭskaje
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Finland Suomenoja
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Zhaltyr Lake
Germany Alfsee
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lewitz
Germany Southern Tollense basin
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Mildenitz Seen, Gägelower See, Uphaler See
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Rohrsee near Bad Wurzach
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Hauke-Haien Koog
Germany Wetterau
Germany Untermain
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Uckertal / Unteruckersee
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland Lough Carra
Ireland Lough Corrib
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Insko Site
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Polesie
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
Slovenia River Drava
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Norway Tautra & Svaet
USA Atchafalaya Delta
USA Active Delta (Mississippi River Birdsfoot Delta)
Mexico Presa de Valsequillo
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Vooremaa
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands Zoetwatergetijderivieren
Netherlands Rijntakken
Estonia Lahemaa
Belarus Tremlia fish farm
Iceland Úthérad
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mareca strepera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2020.