Gadwall Mareca strepera


Taxonomic note
Mareca strepera (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 73,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 113,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,300,000-4,900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 75,400-125,000 pairs, which equates to 151,000-250,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing however some populations are decreasing, while others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (506% increase over 40 years, equating to a 56.9% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extinct Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands U Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Algeria Garaet Haouas
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Lac Tonga
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Belgium Zegge
China (mainland) Cang Shan Er Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Czechia Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands
Czechia Poodri
Czechia Rezabinec pond
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Zehunský rybník pond
Denmark Maribo lakes
Estonia Koigi
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Suomenoja
France Brenne centrale
France Camargue
France La Dombes
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Plaine du Forez
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
Germany Ammersee
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Hauke-Haien Koog
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Mildenitz Seen, Gägelower See, Uphaler See
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Rhine flats Breisach - Sasbach with Limberg
Germany Rhine flats Haltingen - Neuenburg and foothills
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Rohrsee near Bad Wurzach
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Selenter See
Germany Southern Tollense basin
Germany Spreewald
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Evros delta
India Bardha Dam
India Kanjli Lake
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Italy Caorle lagoon
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Morocco Merja Zerga
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Hollands Diep
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Poland Insko Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain River Ebro dam
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Upper Nene Valley Gravel Pits
USA Active Delta (Mississippi River Birdsfoot Delta)
USA Atchafalaya Delta
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mareca strepera. Downloaded from on 19/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/01/2020.