EN
Fynbos Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Turnix hottentottus and T. nanus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as T. hottentottus following Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993), the gender agreement of which follows David and Gosselin (2002b), and before then were split as T. nana and T. hottentotta following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C2a(i)
2014 Endangered C2a(i)
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 61,700
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -

Population justification: A 1994 survey resulted in an estimate of c.310-480 birds, or 0.021-0.036 birds/ha, in 25 km2 of montane fynbos habitat in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve (Ryan and Hockey 1995, Lee 2013). The lack of records suggest that this may be an overestimate, and extrapolation of a much lower density estimate of 0.004 birds/ha from a 1990 study would result in a total population across the Western Cape of just 400 birds (Fraser 1990, Lee 2013). Further survey work has, however, again suggested density figures around 0.03 birds/ha (A. Lee in litt. 2016). Confirmation of this would require the population estimate to be increased in the future, but it is currently precautionarily left within the band 250-999 mature individuals, with no more than 250 individuals in the largest subpopulation.

Trend justification: The population is inferred to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and degradation (Barnes 2000, Madge and McGowan 2002).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Turnix hottentottus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/12/2021.