Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,910,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,970,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2011
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: Wetlands International (2018) estimate the population at 1,000,000-1,490,000 individuals.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia V Extant
Barbados V Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
France V Extant
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia V Extant
Gambia V Extant
Germany V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Haiti V Extant
Honduras N Extant
Iceland V Extant
Ireland V Extant
Japan V Extant
Kiribati V Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of V Extant
Morocco V Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Norway V Extant
Panama N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Senegal V Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands V Extant
Spain V Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Isla Española
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela
Canada Whitford and Rush Lakes
Canada Muriel Lake
Canada Utikuma and Utikumasis Lakes
Canada Cardinal Lake
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Pakowki Lake
Canada Big Lake
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Netley-Libau Marsh
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area
Canada Whitewater Lake
Canada Proven Lake WMA
Canada Langruth - Rm of Lakeview
Canada Marshy Point
Canada Luck Lake
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Reed Lake
Canada Bigstick Lake Plain
Canada Paysen/Kettlehut Lake
Canada Eyebrow Lake
Canada Nicolle Flats
Canada Blackstrap Coulee
Canada Rice Lake
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Mexico La Encrucijada
Mexico Tecolutla
Peru Laguna de Ite
Peru Pantanos de Villa
Peru Estuario de Virrila
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta
Chile Costa sur de Arica
Chile Desembocadura del Río Maipo
Chile Bahia de Concepcion estuary - Talcahuano to Penco
Chile Bio-bio Desembocadura
Chile Humedal-Marisma Rocuant Andalién
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío
Chile Estuario Lenga
Chile Humedal-Estuario Tubul-Raqui
USA Ogden Bay UT03
USA Bear River Bay UT02
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Chile Bahía Rilán
Chile Playa Sur de Arica
Chile Desembocadura del Río Itata
Chile Arica Pelágica
Chile Puerto de Arica
Chile Playa Colún
Chile Humedal de Batuco
Chile Playa Pilolcura
Chile Desembocadura del Río Chamiza,Coihuin-Pelluco
Chile Playa de Pullao
Chile Estero Mantagua y Desembocadura del Río Aconcagua
Chile Isla Santa María
Chile Playa Laraquete
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec
USA Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA Market Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area
USA Oxford Slough
USA Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Chile Humedal de Arauco
Mexico Centro de Veracruz

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Larus pipixcan. Downloaded from on 04/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/12/2022.