EN
Forty-spotted Pardalote Pardalotus quadragintus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
2016 Endangered A2ac;B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C1
2012 Endangered A2ac;B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C1
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,iv); B2a+b(ii,iii,iv)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,500 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 200 good
Number of locations 5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1400-11200, 1800 poor estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The population estimate is based on an area of functional habitat (Maria Island 20.3 km2, Bruny Island and nearby mainland 17.9 km2, Flinders Island 3.3 km2; Webb et al. 2019), an average density of 50% white gum within its area of occupancy, mean occupancy estimates for Maria (0.75), Bruny (0.77) and Flinders (0.06) islands (Webb et al. 2019), and a territory size of 1.6 ha (Woinarski and Bulman 1985), giving 1,820 mature individuals (Maria Island 950, Bruny Island and nearby mainland 860, Flinders Island 13). The minimum uses 40% white gum and the minimum site occupancy. The maximum is based on an estimate of 2.7 birds/ha based on 167 detections over three spring surveys (Alves et al. 2019). The species has long been uncommon or rare (Woinarski and Bulman 1985).

Trend justification: The species has declined from an estimated 3,520 individuals in 1986 (Brown 1986, 1989) and 3,840 individuals in 1994–1997 (Bryant 1997) to 1486 birds in 2009 with the largest population on Maria Island (600–900 individuals; Bryant 2010). The main evidence of decline in the last decade is the disappearance from some areas on mainland Tasmania and scarcity on Flinders Island. Viable breeding subpopulations appear to have gone from locations at Taroona, Lime Bay State Reserve, Peter Murrell Reserve, Conningham Peninsula and Flinders Island (Bryant 2010, Bryant & Webb 2014).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Bruny Island
Australia Maria Island
Australia Central Flinders Island
Australia South-east Tasmania

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Dacelo novaeguineae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis aries Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Pardalotus striatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pardalotus quadragintus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022.