Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.
Behaviour This species is an intra-African migrant (del Hoyo et al. 1996) that makes seasonal (Urban et al. 1986) local movements (Hayman et al. 1986) between its breeding areas and nearby grassland habitats (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It mainly breeds during the rains in solitary pairs, although the exact timing varies throughout its range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is not a gregarious species and usually forages singly (del Hoyo et al. 1996), but may occasionally occur in small loose flocks (Hayman et al. 1986) of 15-20 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996) during the dry season (Johsngard 1980). Habitat Breeding It breeds on rocky, upland (del Hoyo et al. 1996) hills and slopes (Johsngard 1980), especially on those with granite outcroppings (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Newly fledged broods may also forage in nearby cultivated fields and rice-paddies (Hayman et al. 1986). Non-breeding After breeding the species moves to short grassland habitats as well as forest clearings (Johsngard 1980, del Hoyo et al. 1996), bare ground, recently burnt areas, cultivated fields and the muddy edges of lakes, rivers, pools or reservoirs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists of adult and larval beetles, grasshoppers and other insects as well as small molluscs, crustaceans and worms (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a scrape positioned on top of a granite outcrop or on gravel in a stream bed (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species may use the same nest-site for several years (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Text account compilers
Malpas, L., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Charadrius forbesi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/03/2023.