Florida Scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens


Aldredge, R. A.; LeClair, S. C.; Bowman, R. 2012. Declining egg viability explains higher hatching failure in a suburban population of the threatened Florida scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens. J. Av. Biol. 43: 369-375.

AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Boughton, R. and Bowman, R. 2011. State wide assessment of Florida Scrub-Jay on managed areas: A comparison of current populations to the results of the 1992-93 survey. Report to USFWS.

Breininger, D. R., J. D. Nichols, B. W. Duncan, E. D. Stolen, G. M. Carter, D. Hunt, J. H. Drese. 2010. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities. Ecology 9: 3354-3364.

Breininger, D. R., J. D. Nichols, G. M. Carter, D. M. Oddy. 2009. Habitat-specific breeder survival of Florida Scrub-Jays: inferences using multistate models. Ecology 90: 3180-3189.

Breininger, D. R., M. A. Burgman, and B. M. Stith. 1999. Influence of habitat, catastrophes, and population size on extinction risk on Florida Scrub-Jay populations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27: 810-822.

Breininger, D. R.; Toland, B.; Oddy, D.M.; Legare, M. L. 2006. Landcover characterizations and Florida Scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) population dynamics. Biological Conservation 128: 169-181.

Breininger, D.R.; Stolen, E. D.; Carter, G. C.; Oddy, D. M.; Legare, S. A. 2014. Quantifying how territory quality and sociobiology affect recruitment to inform fire management. Anim. Conserv. 17: 72-79.

Carter, G. M.; Legare, M. L.; Breininger, D. R.; Oddy, D. M. 2007. Nocturnal nest predation: a potential obstacle to recovery of a Florida Scrub-jay population. Journal of Field Ornithology 78(4): 390-394.

Chen, N.; Cosgrove, E. J.; Bowman, R.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Clark, A. G. 2016. Genomic Consequences of Population Decline in the Endangered Florida Scrub-Jay. Current Biology 26(21): 2974-2979.

Chu, M.; Stone, W.; McGowan, K. J.; Dhondt, A. A.; Hochachka, W. M.; Therrien, J. E. 2003. West Nile file. Birdscope 17: 10-11.

Coulon, A., J W. Fitzpatrick, R. Bowman, and I. J. Lovette. 2012. Mind the gaps: linear increase of genetic differentiation with the size of habitat gaps in Florida Scrub-Jays. Biology Letters (in press).

Coulon, A., J. W. Fitzpatrick, R. Bowman, B. M. Stith, C. A. Makarewich, L. M. Stenzler, and I. J. Lovette. 2008. Congruent population structures identified by dispersal modeling and intensive genetic surveys in the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma cœrulescens). Molecular Ecology 17: 1685-1701.

Coulon, A., J. W. Fitzpatrick, R. Bowman, I. J. Lovette. 2010. Effective dispersal decreases with increased habitat fragmentation in the Florida Scrub-Jay: complimentary evidence from direct and indirect dispersal estimates. Conservation Biology 24: 1080-1088.

Cox, J. A. 1987. Status and distribution of the Florida Scrub Jay. Florida Ornithologists Society, Florida, U.S.A.

Dreschel, T. W, Smith,R. B. and Breininger, D. R. 1990. Florida Scrub Jay mortality on roadsides. Florida Field Naturalist 18: 82-83.

Franzreb, K. E. 2007. Reproductive success and nest depradation of the Florida Scrub-jay. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(2): 162-169.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Johnson, F. A., D. R. Breininger, B. W. Duncan, J. D. Nichols, M. C. Runge, B. K. Williams. 2011. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida Scrub-Jays. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 2: 234-2470.

Mumme, R.L., Schoech, S.J., Woolfenden, G.W. and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 2000. Life and death in the fast lane: demographic consequences of road mortality in the Florida scrub-jay. Conservation Biology 14(2): 501-512.

Niederhauser, J. M.; Bowman, R. 2014. Testing sources of variation in nestling-stage nest success of Florida Scrub-Jays in suburban and wildland habitats. J. Field Ornithol. 85: 180-195.

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at:

Schoech, S. J.; Bridge, E. S.; Boughton, R. K.; Reynolds, S. J.; Arwell, J. W.; Bowman, R. 2008. Food supplementation: a tool to increase reproductive output? A case study in the threatened Florida Scrub-jay. Biological Conservation 141(1): 162-173.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2019. Species Status Assessment Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) Version 1.0. North Florida Ecological Services. Jacksonville, Florida.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Florida Scrub Jay recovery plan.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. South Florida Multi-species recovery plan. Atlanta, Georgia.

Wilcoxen, T. E.; Bridge, E. S.; Boughton, R. K.; Rensel, M. A.; Reynolds, S. J.; Schoech, S. J. 2011. Parental, social and environmental factors associated with hatching failure in Florida Scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens. Ibis 153(1): 70-77.

Wilcoxen, T. E.; Rensel, M. A. 2009. Invasive fire ants depredate nest of Florida Scrub-jay. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(4): 846-847.

Woolfenden, G. E.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 228, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Recovery Plan

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Aphelocoma coerulescens. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023.