Flores Hawk-eagle Nisaetus floris


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Gjershaug, J.O.; Kvalfy, K.; Rfv, N.; Prawiradilaga, D.M.; Suparman, U.; Rahman, Z. 2004. The taxonomic status of Flores Hawk Eagle Spizaetus floris. Forktail 20: 55-62.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i,ii); D A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 85,900 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100-240 medium estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.5 - - -

Population justification: On the basis of distances between three neighbouring territories, the species's territory size was estimated at c. 40km2. Given that it is primarily dependent on forest, this implies that the total population size for the species is probably less than 100 pairs or 200 mature individuals. In addition at least 20 pairs have been estimated to occur on the island of Alor, representing another 40 mature individuals. It is estimated at 100-240 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 150-360 individuals in total.

Trend justification: No empirical data are available, but deforestation and persecution are likely to be causing an on-going decline. Given the species's longevity scaled over the past three generations it has almost certainly experienced a very rapid decline.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Kelimutu
Indonesia Mbeliling - Tanjung Kerita Mese
Indonesia Nangarawa
Indonesia Ruteng
Indonesia Gunung Rinjani
Indonesia Komodo - Rinca
Indonesia Kunggwera
Indonesia Tuti Adagae
Indonesia Mainang
Indonesia Tatar Sepang
Indonesia Puncak Ngengas
Indonesia Todo Repok
Indonesia Wae Wuul
Indonesia Nggorang Bowosie
Indonesia Sesok

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Nisaetus floris. Downloaded from on 30/01/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/01/2023.