Flores Green-pigeon Treron floris


Justification of Red List category
This frugivore has a small population, which is inferred to be in decline owing to continuing habitat loss and low levels of hunting pressure; it therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Population justification
It is apparently uncommon on Sumbawa and Flores. A rough estimate based on recent survey results suggests there are fewer than 2,000 birds on Flores. It is frequent on several smaller islands - Alor might have a substantial population, but Besar and probably Lembata would have in the order of hundreds of birds only. Therefore, the global population is unlikely to exceed 5,000 individuals. It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be in moderate decline owing to the widespread loss and conversion of habitat within its range. However, it shows some tolerance of secondary habitats, and hunting pressure is low. Therefore, further documentation of this trend is required.

Distribution and population

Treron floris is endemic to Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where it is known from the islands of Sumbawa, Flores, Besar, Solor, Lembata, Pantar and Alor, and may also occur on some other Flores Sea islands (BirdLife International 2001). Myers and Bishop (2005) revealed that records had been absent from Lombok since 1909, although a sighting was observed in 1999 near Mount Rinjani (eBird 2020). However, lowland patches on the south of the island remain unsurveyed and thus its presence on the island is uncertain (P. Verbelen in litt. 2020). It has been reported from Komodo where high elevation forest may support a small population (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). Recent records derive from Sumbawa, where it is rare and local, Flores, where it is generally uncommon but locally numerous around fruiting trees, particularly in the centre where flocks in the tens have been seen quite regularly, Lembata, where it was recorded in small numbers (2-10 birds) in 2000 and 2009 (C. Trainor in litt. 2002, 2012), Alor, where flocks of 30-50 have been observed and it may be locally common (C. Trainor in litt. 2002) and Pantar (P. Verbelen in litt. 2012). The species's stronghold is thought to be in Alor, sparsely populated near Kunggwera village and on the slopes of Mount Koya Koya in extensive tropical forests (Trainor et al. 2012). 


It inhabits lowland, moist and dry, deciduous monsoon-forest, including forest edge and patchy, dry forest/savanna, and more rarely (or at lower densities in) semi-evergreen forest, from sea-level to 1,000 m (on Flores), up to c. 900 m in Central Alor and c. 860 m in East Alor (P. Verbelen in litt. 2020), but only to 550 m on Sumbawa. It is a frugivore, and a key habitat feature may be the presence of certain species of fig (although it is known to take other fruit), particularly as it was absent from moist deciduous monsoon-forest that lacked fig trees. It may be nomadic in relation to the fruiting cycles within (and conceivably between) its island ranges. Also found in eucalyptus savannas (Trainor 2005). The species may show some tolerance of secondary habitats (Baptista et al. 2020). 


Although it appears fairly tolerant of forest degradation, and of drier formations, it is basically forest-dependent and habitat loss is the main threat it faces. Forest clearance, as a result of shifting agriculture and the practice of burning in the dry season, have had a major impact on natural vegetation across its range, while parts of south-west Sumbawa are threatened by a new gold and copper mine. Forest remnants are now largely confined to steep valleys and the highest peaks. Hunting is a further threat, although recent observations of birds close to villages on Lomblen and discussions with local people have indicated that hunting pressure is low-level (C. Trainor in litt. 2002. Trainor et al. 2012). Small numbers have been recorded in trade.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded recently in the Wolo Tadho Strict Nature Reserve and in Keli Mutu National Park, which is protected for its spectacular crater lakes.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to clarify its distribution, status and ecological requirements, such that an effective management strategy may be compiled. Promote the establishment of appropriately sited protected areas, including at Ria on Flores, and Selalu Legini and Gunung Olet Sangenges on Sumbawa. Initiate conservation awareness campaigns on Sumbawa and Flores to elicit local support for forest protection and reduced hunting, as part of a broader strategy for conserving endemic fauna and flora on the islands. Conservation is needed in Central and East Alor (additionally benefiting other very rare birds such as Yellow-crested Cockatoo and Flores Hawk-eagle) (P. Verbelen in litt. 2020). 


29 cm. Medium-sized, gregarious, arboreal pigeon. Male has pale grey face and crown, whitish on forehead. Generally soft green, tinged purplish-bronze on mantle and yellowish on underparts, with white undertail-coverts tipped green. Greyish-black wings with conspicuous pale yellow fringes to coverts. Red iris and legs. Female similar with plain green mantle. Similar spp. Female Pink-necked Green-pigeon T. vernans has green crown and pale chestnut undertail-coverts and female Wedge-tailed Green-pigeon T. sphenura has green crown, no pale fringes to wing-coverts and wedge-shaped tail. Hints Flocks attend fruiting trees, including figs Ficus, where they are wary and inconspicuous. Voice Generally silent, though low grunts, possibly associated with breeding behaviour have been recorded.


Text account compilers
Martin, R., Fernando, E.

Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Lehmberg, T., North, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Trainor, C. & Verbelen, P.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Treron floris. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.