VU
Flightless Cormorant Nannopterum harrisi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. auritus, P. brasilianus and P. harrisi moved into Nannopterum (HBW and BirdLife International 2018).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable D2
2016 Vulnerable D2
2013 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2011 Vulnerable D2
2010 Endangered B1a+c(iv); B2a+c(iv)
2008 Endangered B1a+c(iv); B2a+c(iv)
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,900 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 90 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 50 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2013
Population trend Stable good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.1 - - -

Population justification: In 1971-1972, the population was estimated at 800 breeding pairs (Harris 1973). Between 1977 and 1985, it remained stable at around 650 to 850 mature individuals (Harris 1973, Valle 1986, Valle and Coulter 1987). However, during the severe El Niño event in 1983, the population declined drastically to 400 individuals, but recovered within a season (Valle and Coulter 1987). In 1986, the population was estimated at 1,000 mature individuals (Rosenberg et al. 1990). After the El Niño event in 1997-1998, growth in the cormorant population has been higher than ever before in the survey period (1977-2006). In 1999, a total of 900 individuals was counted during the census (H. Vargas and F. Cruz in litt. 2000). In 2006, a total of 1,396 individuals were counted. Still, results as of 2003 show a decrease in the rate of population growth and a low percentage of juveniles (3% in 2006), suggesting that the population is stabilizing at a new high (Jiménez-Uzcátegui and Vargas 2007). In 2013, the population was estimated to be 2,080 individuals (Jiménez-Uzcátegui 2013, Carrera-Játiva et al. 2014).

Trend justification: This species has undergone marked fluctuations since 1977, with the population estimate ranging from 400 individuals after the El Niño in 1983 (Valle and Coulter 1987) to 1,396 individuals in 2006 (Jiménez-Uzcátegui and Vargas 2007). From 2010 on, a different census methodology was used, and in 2013 the population was estimated in 2,080 individuals (Jiménez-Uzcátegui 2013, Carrera-Játiva et al. 2014). Currently, the population is thought to be stabilizing.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Toxoplasma gondii Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Nannopterum harrisi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2019.