NT
Flesh-footed Shearwater Ardenna carneipes



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Ardenna carneipes (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2018 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2016 Near Threatened A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 609 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 198,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 148000 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.3 - - -

Population justification: Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number >650,000 individuals, but this has recently been revised downward following the identification of a number of significant errors in the historical literature, as well as recent population surveys. Overall, the current global population is substantially smaller than previously thought, comprising only around 74,000 breeding pairs (Lavers 2015). In Australia, the population on Lord Howe Island had been estimated at c.20,000-40,000 breeding pairs in 1978 (Fullagar and Disney 1981) and 17,462 breeding pairs in 2003 (Priddel et al. 2003). In 2009, the population was estimated at 16,267 pairs (95%-confidence interval 11,649–21,250), representing a decline in the number of pairs of 6.8% since 2003, equalling a decline of approximately 1.3% per annum (Reid et al. 2013). In New Zealand, Robertson and Bell (1984) estimated the breeding population at 50,000-100,000 pairs in 1983, while Taylor (2000) considered the population to be at 25,000-50,000 pairs. Recent surveys suggest the population is closer to 10,000-15,000 pairs (Baker et al. 2010, Waugh et al. 2013). The Western Australian population was recently uplisted from Least Concern to Vulnerable (DPaW 2015). Following revision of the breeding population size, the species was recently up-listed to Near Threatened in Australia (Garnett et al. 2011) and to Nationally Vulnerable in New Zealand (Robertson et al. 2013).

Trend justification: Despite the poor historical records and the current lack of data across all populations to assess the global population, there is now enough evidence to confirm that its population has been strongly affected by the fisheries operating in Australia (Tuck et al. 2003, Baker and Wise 2005, Tuck and Wilcox 2008, Richard and Abraham 2014) and the population on Lord Howe and Sandy Island (Australia) and Lady Alice Island (New Zealand) is declining (Tuck et al. 2003, Reid et al. 2013, Waugh et al. 2013, Barbraud et al. 2014).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Canada N Extant
Chile U Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of U Extant
Israel V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kiribati U Extant
Madagascar V Extant
Maldives N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritius U Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Nauru U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
North Korea U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) U Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan U Extant
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Réunion (to France) U Extant
Russia U Extant
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
Somalia U Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tuvalu U Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Australia Eclipse Island (Albany)
Australia Recherche Archipelago
Australia Sandy Island (Windy Harbour)
Australia Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve (Lord Howe Island IBA)
Australia Two Peoples Bay and Mount Manypeaks
French Polynesia Hiva Oa
New Zealand Trio Islands
New Zealand Ruamaahua Aldermen Islands
New Zealand Karewa Island
New Zealand Bay of Plenty Islands
New Zealand Mercury Islands
New Zealand Hirakimata Kotuku Peninsula
New Zealand Hen and Chicken Islands
New Zealand Marotere Chickens Islands
New Zealand Taranga Hen Island
New Zealand Manawatawhi Three Kings Islands
New Zealand Saddleback Island
New Zealand Motumahunga Island
New Zealand Bethells Beach (Kauwahaia Island)
Australia Eclipse Island (Albany) - Marine
Australia Sandy Island (Windy Harbour) - Marine
Australia Recherche Archipelago - Marine
Australia Lord Howe Island - Marine
Fiji East Kadavu Passage
New Zealand Mercury Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ardenna carneipes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.